Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry <p><strong>Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD)</strong> is the official publication of the College of Dentistry/ University of Baghdad. It is a peer-reviewed, Open Access scientific journal that is published quarterly. It publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering all areas of dentistry, including periodontics, orthodontics, conservative and aesthetic dentistry, preventive and pediatric dentistry, prosthodontics, oral medicine and pathology, oral and maxillofacial surgery, dental biomaterials, as well as clinically relevant&nbsp;oral biology. The journal’s editorial board represents an international composition of eminent researchers in dentistry from across the globe. The Journal aims to influence the dental practice at clinician, research and industry levels on an international basis.</p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/nasseer/cover_en_US4.png"></a>&nbsp;</p> <h2><strong class="strongred">Publisher:</strong></h2> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">College of Dentistry/ University of Baghdad</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h2><strong class="strongred">Sponsers:</strong></h2> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University of Baghdad</a></p> en-US <p>Licenses and Copyright</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The following policy applies in The Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD):</p> <p>&nbsp;<br># JBCD applies the&nbsp;Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license&nbsp;to articles and other works we publish. If you submit your paper for publication by JBCD, you agree to have the CC BY license applied to your work. Under this Open Access license, you as the author agree that anyone can reuse your article in whole or part for any purpose, for free, even for commercial purposes. Anyone may copy, distribute, or reuse the content&nbsp;as long as the author and original source are properly cited. This facilitates freedom in re-use and also ensures that JBCD content can be mined without barriers for the needs of research.</p> <p># If your manuscript contains content such as photos, images, figures, tables, audio files, videos, etc., that you or your co-authors do not own, we will require you to provide us with proof that the owner of that content (a) has given you written permission to use it, and (b) has approved of the CC BY license being applied to their content. We provide a form you can use to ask for and obtain permission from the owner.&nbsp; If you do not have owner permission, we will ask you to remove that content and/or replace it with other content that you own or have such permission to use.Don't assume that you can use any content you find on the Internet, or that the content is fair game just because it isn't clear who the owner is or what license applies. It's up to you to ascertain what rights you have—if any—to use that content.</p> <p># Many authors assume that if they previously published a paper through another publisher, they own the rights to that content and they can freely use that content in their paper, but that’s not necessarily the case – it depends on the license that covers the other paper. Some publishers allow free and unrestricted re-use of article content they own, such as under the CC BY license. Other publishers use licenses that allow re-use only if the same license is applied by the person or publisher re-using the content. If the paper was published under a CC BY license or another license that allows free and unrestricted use, you may use the content in your JBCD paper provided that you give proper attribution, as explained above.If the content was published under a more restrictive license, you must ascertain what rights you have under that license. At a minimum, review the license to make sure you can use the content. Contact that JBCD if you have any questions about the license. If the license does not permit you to use the content in a paper that will be covered by an unrestricted license, you must obtain written permission from the publisher to use the content in your JBCD paper.&nbsp;Please do not include any content in your JBCD paper which you do not have rights to use, and always&nbsp;give proper attribution.</p> <p># If any relevant accompanying data is submitted to repositories with stated licensing policies, the policies should not be more restrictive than CC BY.</p> <p># JBCD reserves the right to remove any photos, captures, images, figures, tables, illustrations, audio and video files, and the like, from any paper, whether before or after publication, if we have reason to believe that the content was included in your paper without permission from the owner of the content.</p> (journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry) (Prof. Dr. Ali I Ibrahim) Tue, 15 Sep 2020 21:16:19 +0000 OJS 60 The impact of various staining substances and immersion time on the stainability of bonded sapphire brackets with three kinds of light cure orthodontic adhesives (An in-vitro study) <p>Background: The need of the patient for a more reasonable esthetic orthodontic intervention has risen nowadays. Thus, orthodontists make use of esthetic orthodontic materials like brackets, ligature elastics, and arch wires. The esthetic brackets come as different forms of materials, such as ceramic brackets, which have their stainability remaining as the most important consideration for the patients and the orthodontists. This study aimed to compare the staining effects of various staining materials, including black tea, cigarette smoke and Pepsi, as well as the time effect on the color stability of sapphire ceramic brackets bonded with three kinds of light cure orthodontic adhesives: Transbond, Resilience and Enlight. Materials and Methods: Three hundred sixty sapphire brackets were utilized and divided into three different groups (120 brackets per group) based on the type of bonding material. Each group was further subdivided into four subgroups (30 brackets each) based on the media in which the brackets were fully immersed, including distilled water, black tea, cigarette smoke and Pepsi. Moreover, each of these subgroups were further subdivided, based on the time of immersion relative to each media, into 3 different smaller subgroups (10 brackets each): one day, 7 days and 14 days with incubation at 37°C. A UV-visible type of spectrophotometer was utilized in order to perform a light absorption test. ANOVA and post hoc LSD tests were used for comparison. Results: The smoke of cigarette appeared to be the highest potent staining type among the tested materials followed by Pepsi and tea. The staining effects of all kinds of staining materials in relation to the bonded brackets color with all adhesive types were raised with increased time of immersion. Conclusion: The patient’s cooperation and habits should be taken into consideration when using sapphire orthodontic brackets. In addition, the patients should be instructed to decrease the consumption of staining beverages. Keywords: Stainability, staining materials, sapphire brackets</p> Alaa F Albo Hassan , Nidhal H Ghaib ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The impact of caries experience on quality of life among dental students in Iraq <p>Background: Dental caries is generally given the highest priority in national oral health services for adult populations. Yet, there is no study which has explored the impact on quality of life specifically related to dental caries in samples of dental students. The purpose of the current study was to assess the impact of caries experience on quality of life among dental students in three governorates in Iraq. Materials and Methods: This observational study included 1364 dental students aged 18–22 years old, from three governorates. Information on quality of life was obtained from a structured, self-administered questionnaire from the students who were willing to participate in the study. The data was collected, summarized and statistically analyzed. Caries experience in the present study was determined by the Decayed- Missing Filled Surfaces (DMFS) indexed by WHO in 1997 in which all teeth were examined and all the third molars were included. Results: Regarding dental caries and the four Quality of Life domains, in each domain scores, DS component had the highest contribution to the DMFS followed by the MS component while FS components had the lowest contribution to the index. On the other hand, DMFS showed the lowest mean among the good scores of all domains and it had the highest mean among the poor type. Conclusion: The quality of life among dental students is associated with caries severity as the DMFS and its components affected different domains regarding quality of life. Keywords: caries experience, dental students, quality of life</p> Jenan K Almaas, Ban S Diab ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Salivary mucoepidermoid carcinoma, auclair vs brandwein grading system: A histopathological comparative study <p>Background: The grading systems of salivary mucoepidermoid carcinoma depend on different histologic and morphologic features. The aim of this study was to compare between Auclair and Brandwein systems according to their histologic criteria, and the type of cell predominant. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one case included hematoxylin-eosin (H&amp;E) stained tissue slides that were diagnosed as MEC, originally categorized into low and high grade type regardless of the grading system, have meticulously undergone histopathologic review. The sample was graded according to criteria owing to Auclair and Brandwein methods. The predominant type of cells was determined by microscopic examination according to grade of tumor. Results: Regarding the Auclair method, 10 cases (47.6%) were low grade tumor, 11 cases (52.2%) were high grade type and none of them were intermediate type. By using Brandwein system for the same sample, 4 cases (19%) were low grade, 13 cases (61%) were a high grade tumor, and 4 cases (19%) were intermediate type. Even though, for both systems more than 35% of cases were predominated with epidermoid cells, and &lt;15% showed mucous and intermediate cell predominance for each, whereas &gt;30% were exhibited a mixed type of tumor cells. However, there was a significant correlation between the grading systems applied and the type of cell predominance (p-value &lt;0.05). Conclusion: The number of cases distributed according to Brandwein system was increased as the level of histologic grade being raised, and the type of cells, which are relatively predominant, may be valuable in determining the histologic grade of tumors. Keyword: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), Auclair system, Brandwein system.</p> Omar I Ahmed , Lehadh M Al-Azzawi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Natural head position: A review <p>Objectives: Although the Frankfort Horizontal (FH) and sella-nasion were routinely used as craniofacial reference planes, the inter-individual orientations were changeable when related to true horizontal (HOR). Natural head position (NHP) is a reproducible, standardized position, with the head in an upright posture and eyes focused on a point in the distance at eye level so that the visual axis is horizontal. The natural head position has importance in anthropological as well as in orthodontic fields, as this position has a relatively fixed relationship to the true horizontal and vertical planes. However, NHP is clinically not simple and it takes long time to be recorded, in addition to a deficiency in the tools utilized in the NHP and lack in the staff training. This paper aims to shed the light on different methods of NHP registration and reproduction. Data and Sources: A literature review of English articles was performed using PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar to search for natural head position in orthodontics. Conclusions: NHP is affected by many factors, and it is different in walking state than in static state. There are various cephalometric or photographic methods for NHP recording. Keywords: Reproducibility of natural head position, True horizontal, True vertical plane.</p> Zainab M Kadhom , Noor Jumaa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000