Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry <h3>About Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD)</h3> <p><strong><a style="color: #006990;" title="American Medical Journal" href="/index.php/" target="_self">Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD)</a></strong> is a quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry. University of Baghdad dedicated to the dissemination of new knowledge and information on all sciences relevant to dentistry and to the oral cavity and associated structures in health and disease. The entire archive back to 2005 is available online and articles are available free online their official publication.The journal does not accept any advertising but you will find postings for faculty positions. Additionally, the journal also does not rent, sell or otherwise allow its subscriber list to be used by any other entity. We seeks organizations interested in supporting unbiased research and educational practices. Learn more about opportunities to align your organization with this important initiative.</p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/nasseer/cover_en_US4.png"></a>&nbsp;</p> <h2><strong class="strongred">Publisher:</strong></h2> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">College of Dentistry/ University of Baghdad</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h2><strong class="strongred">Sponsers:</strong></h2> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University of Baghdad</a></p> en-US <p>Licenses and Copyright</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The following policy applies in The Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD):</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol> <li>JBCD applies the&nbsp;Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license&nbsp;to articles and other works we publish. If you submit your paper for publication by JBCD, you agree to have the CC BY license applied to your work. Under this Open Access license, you as the author agree that anyone can reuse your article in whole or part for any purpose, for free, even for commercial purposes. Anyone may copy, distribute, or reuse the content&nbsp;as long as the author and original source are properly cited. This facilitates freedom in re-use and also ensures that JBCD content can be mined without barriers for the needs of research.</li> <li>If you have written permission to do so, yes. If your manuscript contains content such as photos, images, figures, tables, audio files, videos, etc., that you or your co-authors do not own, we will require you to provide us with proof that the owner of that content (a) has given you written permission to use it, and (b) has approved of the CC BY license being applied to their content. 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Other publishers use licenses that allow re-use only if the same license is applied by the person or publisher re-using the content. If the paper was published under a CC BY license or another license that allows free and unrestricted use, you may use the content in your JBCD paper provided that you give proper attribution, as explained above.If the content was published under a more restrictive license, you must ascertain what rights you have under that license. At a minimum, review the license to make sure you can use the content. Contact that JBCD if you have any questions about the license. If the license does not permit you to use the content in a paper that will be covered by an unrestricted license, you must obtain written permission from the publisher to use the content in your JBCD paper.&nbsp;Please do not include any content in your JBCD paper which you do not have rights to use, and always&nbsp;give proper attribution.</li> <li>If any relevant accompanying data is submitted to repositories with stated licensing policies, the policies should not be more restrictive than CC BY.</li> <li>JBCD reserves the right to remove any photos, captures, images, figures, tables, illustrations, audio and video files, and the like, from any paper, whether before or after publication, if we have reason to believe that the content was included in your paper without permission from the owner of the content.</li> </ol> (journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry) (Professor Dr. Akram F Hussain) Sun, 15 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Maximum bite force in relation to maximum mouth opening among primary school children Background: The vertical distance between the upper and lower incisal edge of the central incisors when the mouth is opened as wide as possible is called maximum mouth opening (MMO). Any pathological change in the masticatory system had a direct effect on the maximal mouth opening. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the maximum bite force and the maximum mouth opening among group of children. Materials and methods: Four hundred children of both genders were included in this study, their age ranged from eight to ten years. Anterior and posterior (right, left) bite force were measured using bite force sensor. Maximum mouth opening was evaluated by electronic digital caliper. Data was statistically analyzed by descriptive statistics and by using paired t‑test and Chi‑square test. Results: The value of Maximum mouth opening was increased with the increasing of age in both genders; however, boys had higher value of Maximum Mouth opening than that of girls. A significant difference was found between genders among 9 years old children concerning the maximum bite force. A weak positive relation was observed between Maximum mouth opening and Maximum Bite Force among the boys in both of the age groups. Conclusions: In this study, a significant positive correlation was found between Maximum bite force and Maximum Mouth opening for boys, as they had higher mean value of maximum mouth opening and maximum bite force than girls. Athraa H Medhat, Aseel H Al Haidar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 15 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Crestal Bone Resorption around Dental Implants in Flapped and Flapless Surgical Techniques Depending on Cone Beam CT Scan (Comparative Study) Background: The long term survival of dental implants is evaluated by the amount of crestal bone loss around the implants. Some initial loss of bone around dental implants is generally expected. There is reason to believe that reflecting a mucoperiosteal flap promotes crestal bone loss in the initial phase after an implant has been inserted. The surgical placement of a dental implant fixture is constantly changing and in recent years, there has been some interest in developing techniques that minimize the invasive nature of the procedure, with flapless implant surgery being advocated. The purpose of this study was to compare the radiographic level of the peri- implant bone after implant placement between traditional flapped surgery and flapless approach depending on CBCT during 24 weeks healing period. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 Iraqi patients with an age ranged of 20-60 years who received 46 implants. Were randomized into two groups: control group which involved 27 implants inserted by conventional flapped surgical approach and study group which involved 19 implants inserted by flapless surgical approach. The bone level was measured by CBCT for each implant at buccal and palata/lingual sides at two times, immediately after implant placement (base line data), and after 24 weeks healing period. Results: There was no significant difference between study (flapless) and control (flapped) groups in the mean of total crestal bone resorption for buccal and palatal side after 24 weeks from implant placement (P= 0.393 for buccal side and P= 0.214 for palatal side). There was highly significant difference between buccal and palatal side regarding crestal bone loss around implants (P = 0.001) Conclusions: Bone resoption around dental implants placed with conventional flap surgery compared to flapless surgery does not seem to be influenced during the healing period before implant loading. Mustafa A Al Najjar, Sahar Sh Al Adili ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 15 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Personality Types in relation to dental caries and salivary testosterone among teachers in Baghdad city Background: Personality could be defined broadly as those characteristics of individuals that describe the pattern of feeling, cognition and behaving. Personality types can be measured by using one of personality type’s measures. Personality has been proposed to influence the oral health. The purpose of the present study was to assess the influence of Personality Types on caries experience in relation to salivary testosterone hormone among teachers in Baghdad city. Materials and Methods: Female teachers (n=534) of randomly selected schools were subjected to personality questionnaire using The Riso-Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator. Teachers were examined to estimate the caries experience according to the decayed-missing and filled index (DMFS). A group of teachers were randomly selected from the total sample for salivary analysis of testosterone. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 18 software. A probability value less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Data analysis showed that the higher percentage of teachers was Helpers as the dominant Type. The results showed statistical high significant differences in mean values of DMFS among the nine Personality Types. No significant correlation was found between salivary testosterone concentration (pg /ml) with the scores of the Nine Personality Types. No significant correlation was found between salivary testosterone concentration (pg/ml) and caries experience. Conclusions: The identification of Personality Types and their relations with dental caries can permit the assessment of the individual's susceptibility and facilitate the improvement of the individual's oral health. Keywords: Personality Types, caries experience, salivary testosterone. Raya R Al dafaai, Ban S Diab, Huda J Abd Al Ghani ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 15 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Angiopoietin-2 Immunohistochemical Expression in Oral Squamous cell Carcinoma Background: There are various secreted proteins affecting the prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and one of them is Angiopoietin-2(Ang-2) which is thought to have an essential role in the development and progression of the tumor. Aim of the study: This study was conducted to determine the expression of (Ang-2) in (OSCC) to assess its correlations with clinicopathological parameters of the tumor. Material and Methods: 36 formalin- fixed, paraffin- embedded tissue blocks histologically diagnosed as OSCC were examined for Ang-2 immunohistochemical expression semi quantitively. Results: The expression of Ang-2 was significantly associated with histopathological grade (P value=0.023), while there is no significant association with the clinical parameters analyzed in OSCC patients. Conclusion: A significant association between Ang-2 expression and histopathological grade of OSCC may predict its biological behavior. Intisar A Al Sarraf, Ban F. Al Drobie ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 15 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Oxidative status among a group of pregnant women in relation to gingival health condition Background: pregnancy as a systemic condition causes changes in the functioning of human body as a whole and specifically in the oral cavity and it also is considered as a stressful condition. These changes may favor the increase of oxidative stress. Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the level of marker of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde) and antioxidant (uric acid) in saliva of pregnant compared to non-pregnant women and to assess the gingival health condition in both groups. Additionally, unstimulated salivary flow rate was determined in both groups. Subjects, materials and methods: The study group consisted of sixty pregnant women, they were divided into three equal groups according to trimester (20 pregnant women for each trimester), and they were selected randomly from the Maternal and Child Health Care Centers in Baghdad city, their age range was 20-25 years. In addition to 60 newly married non-pregnant women as a control group and matched with age. Collection of unstimulated salivary samples was carried out under standardized conditions. Dental plaque and gingival indices were used for recording the oral hygiene and gingival health respectively. Salivary flow rate was measured then salivary samples were analyzed to determine the level of salivary antioxidant (uric acid) and lipid peroxidation biomarker of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde). Result: The data analysis of the present study found that the level of salivary malondialdehyde was higher among pregnant women compared to non-pregnant controls with statistically significant difference (p<0.05), while salivary uric acid was statistically significantly lower among the pregnant women compared to non-pregnant controls (p<0.05). Salivary analysis demonstrated that the salivary flow rate was statistically significantly lower among the pregnant women compared to non-pregnant controls (p<0.05). The values of plaque and gingival indices were higher among pregnant women compared to non-pregnant controls with statistically significant difference (p<0.05). The correlation of gingival index with plaque index in study and control group was significant (p<0.05), while with others variables were non-significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: The current study showed an increase in oxidative status in saliva during pregnancy that could affect gingival health which was also affected by oral hygiene. Sarar N Al Najjar, Baydaa Hussein ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 15 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison between the effects of Aloe vera and chlorhexidine on clinical periodontal parameters Background: Periodontal diseases are one of the major dental pathologies that affect human populations worldwide at high prevalence rates The term periodontal disease usually refers only to plaque related inflammatory disease of the dental supporting tissues. Mouth rinses which act as an anti-plaque agents mostly used as adjuncts to oral hygiene. Aims of the study: To Estimate and compare the effects of Aloe vera relative to chlorhexidine on the clinical periodontal parameters (plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing). Material and method: A total of 44 subjects with plaque-induced gingivitis, baseline of data were collected for (PLI, GI, and BOP) and underwent oral hygiene instruction, scaling and polishing, then divided into: Study group I : 15 patients instructed to use Aloe vera mouth wash (100% pure Aloe vera juice) for home application twice daily for 7 days. Study group II: 15 patients instructed to use chlorhexidine (0.2%) mouthwash twice daily for 7 days. Control group: 14 patients instructed not to use any adjunct. Results: PLI and BOP showed significant differences between 1st and 2nd visits in all groups with the larger effects were found in chlorhexidine followed by Aloe vera while the lowest change was found in control group. GI showed significant change between 1st and 2n visits in study groups (chlorhexidine and Aloe vera groups) with the larger effects was in chlorhexidine group, while there was no significant changes were found in control group. Conclusion: chlorhexidine remain the bench mark control as adjunct to periodontal therapy but Aloe vera can be used as alternative to chlorhexidine when it cannot be used. Sarah A. Abed, Basima Gh. Ali, Hanaa J Mohsin ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 15 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The priorities and emergency treatments of multisystem injuries associated with maxillofacial traumas Background: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the care of multiple trauma victims with maxillofacial injuries in terms of epidemiological distributions, types of injuries, the related different modalities of surgical treatments delivered, and their complications. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was performed on 50 patients with multiple traumas including maxillofacial injuries, caused by different etiological factors, who were brought first to the surgical emergencies department of the Medical City then referred to the Maxillofacial unit in the Specialized Surgeries Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq, during the period from April 2007 to April 2008. Information was documented prospectively from the time of the emergency call to discharge (or death). Results: the age range was from 6 to 63 years, with the most frequent age group for injury being ranged between 21-30 years. The male to female ratio was 6:1. The missile injuries accounted for 90% of multiple traumas with maxillofacial injuries, while civilian injuries accounted for 10% of the cases. The mechanisms of injury, concerning war injuries, were gunshot injuries 46% and blast injuries 44%, while concerning civilian injuries: road traffic accidents 8% and stabbing injuries 2%. Among 50 people injured, 3 (6%) died. Conclusion: The priority during initial treatment is the achievement of patent airway, hemostasis, and the maintenance of vital tissues oxygenation. Ahmed O. Hasan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 15 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Association of a genetic variant (rs689466) of Cyclooxygenase-2 gene with chronic periodontitis in a sample of Iraqi population Background: periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease causing destruction of the tooth supporting structures, initiated by dental plaque and modified by environmental and genetic risk factors. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme is responsible for the production of prostaglandin E2, an important mediator in the chronic periodontitis (CP) pathogenesis. Polymorphisms in COX-2 gene have linked to CP in different populations. Aim: To study the association between Cyclooxygenase-2 single nucleotide polymorphism rs689466 (-1195A/G SNP) and chronic periodontitis in a sample of Iraqi population. Methods: One hundred Iraqi subjects divided into two groups: case group consisted of 70 CP patient (35 males and 35 females) with age range 30-55 years, and control group consisted of 30 racially matched healthy subjects (15 males and 15 females) with age range 30-50 years. Clinical periodontal parameters including plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were recoded for all participants. 3ml of venous blood was collected from each participant for isolating genomic DNA. Genotyping of the rs689466 in COX-2 gene was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Results: The frequency of G allele carriers was significantly more prevalent in the case group compared to control group (P= 0.041), and allele G was associated with greater susceptibility for chronic periodontitis compared to allele A (OR=1.4). Conclusion: COX-2 (rs689466) polymorphism may be associated with increased chronic periodontitis susceptibility. Suha A. Dahash, Maha Sh. Mahmood ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 15 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Oral health in relation to nutritional status among 10 years old primary school children in Al-Hillah city/ Iraq Background: Oral health and nutrition are in interdependent relationship that good nutritional health enhancing good oral health. Nutrition can affect the development and integrity of oral cavity and the progression of oral disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of the gingival health condition in relation to the nutritional status, among 10 years old primary school children in urban and rural area in Al-Hillah city. Material and method: Eight hundred ninety one (891) students, aged10 years old, selected randomly from different primary schools, in urban and rural area in Al-Hillah city, were included in this study. Oral examination including of plaque index assessment, which was done according to the criteria by Silness and Loe, in 1964, gingival health conditions was determined according to Loe and Silness, 1963. Nutritional status was assessed using body mass index (BMI), following the criteria of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth chart (CDC). Statistical analysis was done using Kruskal Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U test and ANOVA, p-value of < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: This study showed that the majority of the sample was found to be with normal gingival health condition. No significant difference was observed between the gingival index in relation to gender, or residence also, no significant result was found, between plaque and gingival index in relation to the nutritional status. Conclusion: The majority of the sample with normal gingiva however the nutritional status had no significant effect on gingival health condition while the urbanization had an effect on oral hygiene Sarah Y. AL Khafaji, Nadia A Al Rawi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 15 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Effectiveness of Aluminum Potassium Sulfate Micro-Particles Addition into Soft Denture Lining Material on Tensile strength and Peel bond Strength of Soft Denture Lining Material Naturally available products have been used widely for centuries in handling human disease. The present study aimed to determine the effect of aluminum potassium sulfate addition into the soft liner on tensile strength and peel bond strength. The effect of aluminum potassium sulfate evaluated by two methods, first one include incorporation of KAL (SO4)2 into soft liner monomer in concentration (2%,3% by wt.) while the second method include immersion of soft liner specimens in solution of KAL(SO4)2 in concentration(5%,10% percent) during time periods (0,10 minutes). In conclusions, the results of current study encourage use KAL (SO4)2 within soft liner material Ali Mohad , Abdalbseet A Fatalla ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 15 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Effects of Nano Alumina On Mechanical Properties of Room Temperature Vulcanized Maxillofacial Silicone (Pilot Study) Background: Facial disfigurement can be the result of a congenital anomaly, trauma or tumor surgery, in many cases the prosthetic rehabilitation is indicated. Maxillofacial prosthetic materials should have desirable and ideal physical, aesthetic, and biological properties and those properties should be kept for long period of time in order to reach patient acceptance. Silicone elastomer are the most commonly used material for facial restoration because of its favorable properties mechanically and physically as the biocompatibility and good elasticity. Aim of this study: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of addition of Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) Nano fillers in different concentrations on tear strength and hardness of VST 50F room temperature vulcanized maxillofacial silicone. Methods: The Nano Al2O3 was added in a concentrations of 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 by weight to the VST 50F RTV maxillofacial silicone, the samples were tested for tear strength (ISO 34 -1) and shore A hardness (ISO 7619), the FTIR was used to analyze the interaction of the Nano Al2O3 with the silicone. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. One-way ANOVA test was used to test the changing significance. Results: There was no interaction between the Nano-Al2O3 and the silicone in the FTIR. The results showed highly significant increase in tear strength and shore A hardness for the 1 and 1.5 concentration groups when Compared to control group. Conclusion: The reinforcement of VST 50F maxillofacial silicone with 1 and 1.5 concentrations of Nano Al2O3 improved some of the mechanical properties of the room temperature vulcanized silicone. Ahmed Aj. AbdulKareem, Thekra I. Hamad ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 15 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of platelet rich-fibrin on alveolar osteitis incidence following surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars: A comparative study Background: Postoperative morbidity after extraction of the impacted mandibular third molar (IMTM) is inevitable. One of the most common postoperative complication is alveolar osteitis (AO) which is a painful non healed socket. Many researches were attempted to prevent the occurrence of AO by introducing and applying a new materials inside the extraction socket. Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) is a biological complex fibrin matrix where autologous platelets and leucocytes are present, used to enhance tissue healing process and reduce the early adverse effects of the inflammation. Aims: To evaluate the effect of PRF on the incidence of AO. Also to assess PRF effect on pain, swelling, and trismus following the surgical removal of IMTM and compare it with the control group. Materials and methods: This clinical prospective study was conducted from October 2016 to October 2017 at the Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, College of dentistry/University of Baghdad; and Al-Sadr Specialized Health Center. A total number of 50 IMTMs were surgically removed from 45 patients who met the inclusion criteria (21 males and 24 females) with age ranged from 16-41 years. The cases were divided into two groups: a study group (25 cases) where PRF were placed inside the extraction socket and control group (25 cases) where traditional surgery were performed. AO, trismus and swelling were assessed at the 2nd and 7th postoperative day. Pain scored by numeric rating scale daily by the patients. Results: The study showed that age, gender, side of impaction, oral hygiene condition, impacted tooth classification, surgical difficulty, and the time of procedure in both control and study groups had nearly similar distribution with non- significant difference. At the 1st follow up period: Trismus (P-value = 0.834) and Swelling (P-value = 0.592) were non- significant between the two groups. AO had overall incidence of 4% occurred only in the control group, while the PRF group had no occurrence (0%), but the difference was statistically non significant. Postoperative pain had no significance difference in both groups. At the 2nd follow up period there was no significant difference regarding trismus, swelling, and incidence of AO between both groups. Conclusion: Local application of PRF can reduce the incidence of AO but not to a significant level. PRF had no effect concerning postoperative pain, swelling, and trismus. Ali S. Abdul Kareem, Ali H. Al Hussaini ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 15 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of effect of local exogenous application of Myrrh oil on healing of wound incisions of facial skin (Histochemical, Histological and Histomorphometrical study in rabbits) Aim of the study: Is to evaluate the effect of myrrh oil local application on the healing process of skin wounds histologically , histomorphometrically and , histochemically. Materials and methods:Twenty male white New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. An incisional wounds with full thickness depth and of 2 cm length were done on both sides of the cheek skin of each rabbit. The left sided incisions (the control group) were irrigated with distilled water (10µL). The right sided incisions (the experimental groups) were treated with myrrh oil (10µL). Each group was subdivided into 4 subgroups according to the healing interval into 1,3,7 and 14 days(5 rabbits for each group). Results: Histological findings of our current study showed a highly significant difference between the experimental and the control groups in count of the inflammatory cells which showed that mean values increased with time for the control and the experimental groups. The histomorphometrical findings had shown that the thickness of the epithelium was nearly completed at about 7 days for the experimental groups and at about 14 days for the control. The blood vessels count was recorded to have a highly significant difference between the groups at days 1 and 3 only. The histochemical findings had shown that the collagen fibers remodeling had recorded a highly significant difference between the control and the experimental groups at days 7 and 14. Conclusion: The current study had revealed that myrrh oil accelerates wounds healing in rabbits. Key word:Wound healing , Myrrh oil, Masson’s Trichrome staining. Nawar Bahjet Kamil, Nada M. Al-Ghaban ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 15 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000