Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry 2021-09-15T17:42:16+00:00 journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry Open Journal Systems <p><strong><span class="s2"><span class="bumpedFont15">Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD)</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">&nbsp;</span></span></strong><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">is the official publication of the College of Dentistry</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">,</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15"> University of Baghdad. It is a peer-reviewed, </span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">o</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">pen</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">-a</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">ccess scientific journal that is published quarterly. It publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering all areas of dentistry, including periodontics, orthodontics, </span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">restorative</span></span> <span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">and aesthetic dentistry, preventive and pediatric dentistry, prosthodontics, oral medicine and pathology, oral and maxillofacial surgery, dental biomaterials, as well as clinically relevant&nbsp;oral biology. The journal’s editorial board represents an international composition of eminent researchers in dentistry from across the globe. The </span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">j</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">ournal aims to influence the dental practice at clinic</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">al</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">, research and industry levels on an international basis.</span></span></p> Prevalence of viral co-infection among COVID-19 cases in association disease severity and oral hygiene 2021-09-15T17:42:16+00:00 Zeina S Adham Batool H Al-Ghurabi <p>Background: In December 2019, an episode of COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV2) was reported in Wuhan, China and has spread around the world, increasing the number of contagions. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are common herpesviruses that can cause persistent latent infections and affect the developing immune system.The study was conducted to explore the prevalence and reactivation of CMV and EBV antibodies in COVID-19 patients group in comparison to healthy group and to investigate the association between the presence of these viruses with each of severity of disease and oral hygiene. Materials and Methods: Eighty Five subjects were participated in this case control study (50 patients with COVID-19 and 35 healthy controls), their age range from 18 to 77 years. Oral health status was established by oral hygiene index. Serum obtained from patients and controls was analyzed using ELISA to assess levels of anti- CMV and anti- EBV antibodies. Results: The study revealed that the mean of anti-EBV IgG in patients was significantly elevated (p&lt;0.01) than that in controls. Otherwise, there was no significant difference (p&gt;0.05) in levels of anti- EBV IgM, anti- CMV IgG and IgM between two groups (P&gt;0.05). In addition there were no significant differences between patients and controls (p&gt;0.05) in the number and percentage of anti-EBV and anti-CMV antibodies. Interestingly, there was a significant increase in the level of anti-CMV IgM in severe cases as compared to mild cases, (P&lt;0.01). Furthermore, these results revealed that there were no significant differences (P&gt;0.05) in levels of anti-viral antibodies in patients with good oral hygiene compared to patients with poor oral hygiene. Conclusions: Higher frequency of anti-EBV IgG among patients indicates that latent infection is more common in COVID-19 patients. While an increased percentage of anti-CMV IgM indicated reactivation of latent infection and is related to disease severity suggesting that COVID-19 can cause cellular immune impairment.</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of plasma treatment on the bond of soft denture liner to conventional and high impact acrylic denture materials 2021-09-15T17:42:16+00:00 Lubna M Qanber Thekra I Hamad <p>Background: The main drawback of soft lining materials was that they debonded from the denture base after a certain period of usage. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to determine the impact of oxygen and argon plasma treatment on the shear bonding strength of soft liners to two different kinds of denture base materials: conventional acrylic resin and high impact acrylic resin. Materials and Methods: Heat cure conventional and high impact acrylic blocks (40 for each group) were prepared. A soft liner connected the final test specimen of two blocks of each acrylic material. Shear bond strength (SBS) was assessed using universal testing machine. Additional blocks were also prepared for analyzing Vickers microhardness, contact angle, FTIR and AFM. The results were statistically analyzed using paired-sample T-test and independent-samples T-test (α=0.05). Results: The results showed a highly significant increase in SBS following plasma treatment with the highest mean value observed in plasma treated high impact acrylic specimen. Along with a significant rise in wettability, while microhardness was preserved. Conclusion: In conclusion, oxygen and argon plasma treatment was significantly effective in enhancing the SBS between soft liner and acrylic materials.</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The effect of contact time between alginate impression material and type III dental stone on the surface properties of stone casts 2021-09-15T17:42:16+00:00 Suha F Dulaimi Atyaf M Alnaser Najwah Y Hameed <p>Background: Alginate impression material is the irreversible hydrocolloid material that is widely used in dentistry. The contact time between alginate and gypsum cast could have a detrimental effect on the properties of the gypsum cast. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of various contact time intervals of Alginate impressions &amp; type III dental stone on surface properties of stone cast. Materials and Methods: Time intervals tested were 1hour, 6 hours and 9 hours. Surface properties of stone cast evaluated were surface detail reproduction, hardness and roughness. Surface detail reproduction was determined using cylindrical brass test block in accordance with ISO 1563. Surface roughness was measured by profilometer and hardness was measured by Durometer (Shore D). Results: The detail reproduction showed significant difference (P&lt;0.05), at 6 hr., and 9 hr. showed better results. While surface roughness significantly decreased (p&lt;0.01) with prolonged contact time. However, surface hardness increased significantly (p&lt;0.01) with increased contact time. Conclusions: Surface detail reproduction increased with increasing the contact time and this was noticed at (6, 9 hours). However, 1hour time interval showed decreased surface detailed reproduction. Roughness decreased when the contact time was increased between type III dental stone and alginate impression whereas, hardness was improved significantly with increasing contact time.</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The estimation of the viable count of mutans streptococcus in waterpipe smokers and cigarette smokers 2021-09-15T17:42:15+00:00 Ausama A Fathallh Maha A Mahmood <p>Background: Waterpipe and cigarette are two products of tobacco consumption, tobacco use has detrimental effects on the oral cavity, numerous studies around the world have reported a significant relationship between smoking and increase dental caries and viable count of cariogenic bacteria, Materials and Methods: unstimulated saliva was collected from 84 subjects and divided equally into three groups waterpipe smokers, cigarette smokers, and non-smokers all of the participants are adult male aged between 25-60 years, dental caries was measured by use DMFT index, while S.mutans and S.sobrinus were isolated by using a selective medium SB 20M (Sugar bacitracin-20 modified) agar Results: this present study showed a significant (p≤0.01). higher DMFT, DT, MT, and FT among cigarette smokers group than both waterpipe smokers and non-smokers groups. The viable count of S mutans was significantly (p≤0.01).higher in the cigarette smokers group followed by the waterpipe smokers group and then the non-smoker's group, while the viable count of S sobrinus showed no statistical differences (P&gt;0.05) between groups. The correlation of DMFT with S.mutans, and S sobrinus count, were significantly positive (p ≤0.05), in the cigarette smokers group only Conclusion: Dental caries increase in cigarette smokers, where the DMFT and S mutans viable count are less affected by waterpipe than cigarette smoking, a positive correlation is found between DMFT and .mutans streptococcus count only in cigarette smokers</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Diet and orthodontics- A review 2021-09-15T17:42:15+00:00 Maymona a Ibraheem Mohammed Nahidh <p>During the course of fixed orthodontic therapy, patients should be instructed to eat specific food stuffs and beverages in order to maintain good health for the dentition and supporting structures and prevent frequent attachment debonding that prolong the treatment duration. After searching and collecting articles from 1930 till July 2021, the current review was prepared to emphasize various types of foods that should be taken during the course of fixed orthodontic therapy and to explain the effect of various food stuffs and beverages on the growth and development of craniofacial structures, tooth surfaces, root resorption, tooth movement, retention and stability after orthodontic treatment and the effect on the components of fixed orthodontic appliance.</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##