Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry https://jbcd.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/jbcd <p><strong>Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD)</strong> is the official publication of the College of Dentistry/ University of Baghdad. It is a peer-reviewed, Open Access scientific journal that is published quarterly. It publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering all areas of dentistry, including periodontics, orthodontics, conservative and aesthetic dentistry, preventive and pediatric dentistry, prosthodontics, oral medicine and pathology, oral and maxillofacial surgery, dental biomaterials, as well as clinically relevant&nbsp;oral biology. The journal’s editorial board represents an international composition of eminent researchers in dentistry from across the globe. The Journal aims to influence the dental practice at clinician, research and industry levels on an international basis.</p> <p><a href="http://jcodental-uobaghdad-edu.org/index.php/jbcd/issue/view/54" target="_blank" rel="noopener">&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/nasseer/cover_en_US4.png"></a>&nbsp;</p> <h2><strong class="strongred">Publisher:</strong></h2> <p><a href="http://jbcd.uobaghdad.edu.iq" target="_blank" rel="noopener">College of Dentistry/ University of Baghdad</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h2><strong class="strongred">Sponsers:</strong></h2> <p><a href="http://www.uobaghdad.edu.iq/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University of Baghdad</a></p> College of dentistry/ University of baghdad en-US Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry 1680-0087 <p>Licenses and Copyright</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The following policy applies in The Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD):</p> <p>&nbsp;<br># JBCD applies the&nbsp;Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license&nbsp;to articles and other works we publish. If you submit your paper for publication by JBCD, you agree to have the CC BY license applied to your work. Under this Open Access license, you as the author agree that anyone can reuse your article in whole or part for any purpose, for free, even for commercial purposes. Anyone may copy, distribute, or reuse the content&nbsp;as long as the author and original source are properly cited. This facilitates freedom in re-use and also ensures that JBCD content can be mined without barriers for the needs of research.</p> <p># If your manuscript contains content such as photos, images, figures, tables, audio files, videos, etc., that you or your co-authors do not own, we will require you to provide us with proof that the owner of that content (a) has given you written permission to use it, and (b) has approved of the CC BY license being applied to their content. We provide a form you can use to ask for and obtain permission from the owner.&nbsp; If you do not have owner permission, we will ask you to remove that content and/or replace it with other content that you own or have such permission to use.Don't assume that you can use any content you find on the Internet, or that the content is fair game just because it isn't clear who the owner is or what license applies. It's up to you to ascertain what rights you have—if any—to use that content.</p> <p># Many authors assume that if they previously published a paper through another publisher, they own the rights to that content and they can freely use that content in their paper, but that’s not necessarily the case – it depends on the license that covers the other paper. Some publishers allow free and unrestricted re-use of article content they own, such as under the CC BY license. Other publishers use licenses that allow re-use only if the same license is applied by the person or publisher re-using the content. If the paper was published under a CC BY license or another license that allows free and unrestricted use, you may use the content in your JBCD paper provided that you give proper attribution, as explained above.If the content was published under a more restrictive license, you must ascertain what rights you have under that license. At a minimum, review the license to make sure you can use the content. Contact that JBCD if you have any questions about the license. If the license does not permit you to use the content in a paper that will be covered by an unrestricted license, you must obtain written permission from the publisher to use the content in your JBCD paper.&nbsp;Please do not include any content in your JBCD paper which you do not have rights to use, and always&nbsp;give proper attribution.</p> <p># If any relevant accompanying data is submitted to repositories with stated licensing policies, the policies should not be more restrictive than CC BY.</p> <p># JBCD reserves the right to remove any photos, captures, images, figures, tables, illustrations, audio and video files, and the like, from any paper, whether before or after publication, if we have reason to believe that the content was included in your paper without permission from the owner of the content.</p> Coated stainless steel archwires' discoloration measured by computerized system (An in-vitro study) https://jbcd.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/jbcd/article/view/2911 <p>Background: Aesthetic archwires are used to overcome the aesthetic problems of stainless steel wires but the color of the coating layer can be changed with time when exposed to oral environments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of color change of different aesthetic archwires from different companies under different coloring solutions. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty samples of coated archwires from three companies (Highland, G&amp;H and Dany) were immersed in 5 solutions (artificial saliva, turmeric, tea, coffee and Miranda) to evaluate the degree of color changes after 7, 14 and 21 days using visible spectrophotometer. Data were collected and analyzed using one way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey’s tests. Results: Turmeric solution caused high color change than other solutions. Aesthetic archwires from Highland company showed the highest degree of color change than archwires from other companies. Conclusions: Turmeric solution produced more discoloration than other solutions and the effects of these solutions are related to different chemical compositions of those solutions.</p> Abeer B Mahmood ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-15 2020-12-15 32 4 1 4 10.26477/jbcd.v32i4.2911 Effect of ageing media on shear bond strength of metal orthodontic brackets bonded with different adhesive systems (A comparative in-vitro study) https://jbcd.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/jbcd/article/view/2912 <p>Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remnant index (ARI) of different orthodontic adhesive systems after exposure to aging media (water storage and acid challenge). Materials and methods: Eighty human upper premolar teeth were extracted for orthodontic purposes and randomly divided into two groups (40 teeth each): the first group in which the bonded teeth were stored in distilled water for 30 days at 37°C, and the second group in which the bonded teeth were subjected to acid challenge. Each group was further subdivided into four subgroups (10 teeth each) according to the type of adhesive system that would be bonded to metal brackets: either non-fluoride releasing adhesive (NFRA), fluoride releasing adhesive (FRA), Fluoride releasing bond with self-etching primer (FRBSP), or powder and liquid orthodontic fluoride releasing adhesive (PLFRA). After 30 days of water storage and acid challenge ageing procedures, the SBS was determined using Instron testing machine with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The ARI was assessed using a stereomicroscope with 10 X magnification. Result: The SBS testing revealed significant differences (p&lt; 0.05) among the four tested adhesive systems in water storage and acid challenge groups using ANOVA F-test. In both groups, the NFRA subgroup exhibited the highest mean SBS value, followed by FRASP, then FRA subgroups, while the PLFRA subgroup had the lowest value of mean SBS. The independent t-test showed non-significant differences in mean SBS values between water storage and acid challenge groups. In respect to the ARI analysis, the Chi-square test showed significant differences among the tested adhesive systems. Conclusion: The shear bond strength of the fluoride releasing adhesive system was less than that of the non-fluoride releasing adhesive system, but still above the clinically acceptable range.</p> Ahmed D Hatf Mustafa M AL-Khatieeb ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-15 2020-12-15 32 4 5 11 10.26477/jbcd.v32i4.2912 Impact of two non-nutritive sucking patterns on the development of anterior open bite in children of two kindergartens in Baghdad city https://jbcd.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/jbcd/article/view/2913 <p>Background: Non-nutritive sucking habit (NNSH) is the main environmental causative factor that disturbs normal orofacial development. In spite of the harmful effect of pacifier as a NNSH, mothers aware from the other types of NNSH like thumb sucking far more than pacifier use. Open bite is one of the most challenging malocclusions in orthodontics due to the high prevalence of relapse after treatment, so preventing the causative factor of its occurrence is essential at early age of child life. This study aims to assess the impact of two non-nutritive patterns on the development of anterior open bite in primary dentition and to compare which of these habits mostly affect open bite development. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 313 Iraqi children (135 boys, 178 girls), aged 3-5 years, enrolled at two public kindergartens in Baghdad city, the Capital of Iraq. A pre-tested questionnaire with clinical examination were used to obtain data regarding thumb sucking, pacifier and the presence of open bite. Excel sheets were used for data processing, and Chi square test was used in data analysis. Results: There was a significant association between NNSH and the development of open bite (p value = 0.01). No gender differences in open bite prevalence were observed. The prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits and open bite was 63.11% and 52.9% respectively with no gender difference. There was no significant differences between the effect of pacifier and thumb sucking habits on the development of an anterior open bite. Conclusion: Both pacifier and thumb sucking at preschool age are significant causative factors that lead to development of open bite in primary dentition. Encouraging mothers to ban and discontinue pacifier and thumb sucking habits as early as possible in the child's life is a crucial factor to prevent open bite development. On the other hand if general health of the child indicates the use of pacifier, mothers should use an orthodontic pacifier and for short time</p> Munad J Al Duliamy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-15 2020-12-15 32 4 12 16 10.26477/jbcd.v32i4.2913 Caries risk assessment of a sample of children attending preventive specialized dental center in Al Resafa, Baghdad https://jbcd.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/jbcd/article/view/2914 <p>Background: Young children’s oral health maintenance and outcomes are influenced by their parent’s knowledge and beliefs, which affect oral hygiene and healthy eating habits. This study aims at assessing caries risk in children aged 6 months to 6 years attending the Specialized Center of Preventive and Pediatric Dentistry Center at Al-Resafa sector in Baghdad. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from 15 May – 15 June 2018, all children attended the center (80 children) were assessed by using the standard caries risk assessment tool of the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD). Results: The highest percentage of children was as follows: no fluoride exposure 44(55%), did not brush 46(57.5%), had no special health care needs 77(96.25%), had no missed teeth due to caries 51(63.75%), had no-visible plaque 52(65%), frequent or prolonged between-meal exposure/day 55(68.75%), their mothers had carious lesions in last 7-23 months 34(42.5%); in visual caries: had carious lesions or restorations in last 24 months 67(83.75%), while the incipient carious lesions in last 24 months were 50(62.50%). Most of risk assessment score for the participants was moderate 57(71.3%), followed by low risk 16(20%), while the participants with high risk were 7(8.8%), with a statistically significant association between the risk assessment score and fluoride exposure (p=0.043), sugary foods or drinks(p=0.038), caries experience of the mothers (p=0.001), brushing (p=0.020) visual caries (p=0.000), incipient caries (p= 0.000), missing teeth due to caries (p= 0.001), but no statistical significance with special health care needs (p=0.533) and visible plaque (p=0.259). Conclusion: Moderate-risk of developing dental caries was predominant among the participants, followed by low-risk and less high-risk categories.</p> Zaid N Muhson Shaymaa Thabit Fatima S Al-ward Sahar AE Al Shatari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-15 2020-12-15 32 4 17 24 10.26477/jbcd.v32i4.2914 Gingival health condition among children of inbreeding parents compared to children of outbreeding parents in Babylon governorate / Iraq https://jbcd.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/jbcd/article/view/2915 <p>Background: Consanguineous marriage is a relationship between biologically related individuals. Genetic factors have a role in gene environment interactions that takes the center stage. The evidence of oral disease (gingivitis and periodontitis) may depend on genetic syndromes, inherited diseases, familial studies etc. The present study aims at assessing dental plaque and gingival health condition in children of inbreeding parents compared with children of outbreeding parents among primary schools in Al-Qasem city/ Babylon governorate in Iraq. Materials and methods: this comparative study included three hundred ninety eight (398) students, 6-12 years old, from 4 primary schools; 199 children had their parents of inbreeding marriage with first level of inbreeding, and the other 199 children had parents of outbreeding marriage. Plaque status was assessed according to index of Silness and Loe (1964), gingival health status according to index of Loe and Silness (1963). Results: Children of inbreeding parents showed significantly higher plaque index and gingival index mean values than children of outbreeding parents. Mild gingivitis was found as the most prevalent type among both groups. A highly significant positive correlation was found between gingival and plaque indices. Conclusion: Inbreeding rates have an effect on oral health, as the children of outbreeding parents had significantly better oral hygiene and gingival health condition than children of inbreeding parents.</p> Zahraa M Wais Nadia A Al Rawi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-15 2020-12-15 32 4 25 29 10.26477/jbcd.v32i4.2915