Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry https://jbcd.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/jbcd <p><strong><span class="s2"><span class="bumpedFont15">Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD)</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15"> </span></span></strong><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">is the official publication of the College of Dentistry</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">,</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15"> University of Baghdad. It is a peer-reviewed, </span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">o</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">pen</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">-a</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">ccess scientific journal that is published quarterly. It publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering all areas of dentistry, including periodontics, orthodontics, </span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">restorative</span></span> <span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">and aesthetic dentistry, preventive and pediatric dentistry, prosthodontics, oral medicine and pathology, oral and maxillofacial surgery, dental biomaterials, as well as clinically relevant oral biology. The journal's editorial board represents an international composition of eminent researchers in dentistry from across the globe. The </span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">j</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">ournal aims to influence the dental practice at clinic</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">al</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">, research and industry levels on an international basis.</span></span></p> College of dentistry/ University of baghdad en-US Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry 1817-1869 <p>Licenses and Copyright</p> <p> </p> <p>The following policy applies in The Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD):</p> <p> <br /># JBCD applies the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license to articles and other works we publish. If you submit your paper for publication by JBCD, you agree to have the CC BY license applied to your work. Under this Open Access license, you as the author agree that anyone can reuse your article in whole or part for any purpose, for free, even for commercial purposes. Anyone may copy, distribute, or reuse the content as long as the author and original source are properly cited. This facilitates freedom in re-use and also ensures that JBCD content can be mined without barriers for the needs of research.</p> <p># If your manuscript contains content such as photos, images, figures, tables, audio files, videos, etc., that you or your co-authors do not own, we will require you to provide us with proof that the owner of that content (a) has given you written permission to use it, and (b) has approved of the CC BY license being applied to their content. We provide a form you can use to ask for and obtain permission from the owner. If you do not have owner permission, we will ask you to remove that content and/or replace it with other content that you own or have such permission to use.Don't assume that you can use any content you find on the Internet, or that the content is fair game just because it isn't clear who the owner is or what license applies.</p> <p># Many authors assume that if they previously published a paper through another publisher, they own the rights to that content and they can freely use that content in their paper, but that’s not necessarily the case, it depends on the license that covers the other paper. Some publishers allow free and unrestricted re-use of article content they own, such as under the CC BY license. Other publishers use licenses that allow re-use only if the same license is applied by the person or publisher re-using the content. If the paper was published under a CC BY license or another license that allows free and unrestricted use, you may use the content in your JBCD paper provided that you give proper attribution, as explained above.If the content was published under a more restrictive license, you must ascertain what rights you have under that license. At a minimum, review the license to make sure you can use the content. Contact that JBCD if you have any questions about the license. If the license does not permit you to use the content in a paper that will be covered by an unrestricted license, you must obtain written permission from the publisher to use the content in your JBCD paper. Please do not include any content in your JBCD paper which you do not have rights to use, and always give proper attribution.</p> <p># If any relevant accompanying data is submitted to repositories with stated licensing policies, the policies should not be more restrictive than CC BY.</p> <p># JBCD reserves the right to remove any photos, captures, images, figures, tables, illustrations, audio and video files, and the like, from any paper, whether before or after publication, if we have reason to believe that the content was included in your paper without permission from the owner of the content.</p> Effect of Artificial Aging Test on PEEK CAD/CAM Fabricated Orthodontic Fixed Lingual Retainer https://jbcd.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/jbcd/article/view/3147 <p>Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of in vitro long-term simulation of oral conditions on the bond strength of PEEK CAD/CAM lingual retainers.</p> <p>Material and methods: The sample consisted of 12 PEEK CAD/CAM retainers each composed of 2 centrally perforated 3x4mm pads joined by a connector. They were treated by 98% sulfuric acid for 1 minute and then conditioned with Single Bond Universal and bonded to the lingual surface of premolar teeth by 3M Transbond TM System. Half of the retainers were artificially aged using a 30-day water storage and 5000 thermocycling protocol before bond strength testing to compare with the non-aged specimens.</p> <p>Results: The artificially aged retainers showed a marginally lower bond strength than the non-aged retainers. However, independent sample t-test indicated that this difference was statistically not significant.</p> <p>Conclusion: The durability of the PEEK lingual retainer adhesive system has been confirmed using the well-known oral simulating artificial aging protocol of water storage and thermocycling.</p> Riyadh A Ruwiaee Akram F Alhuwaizi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-15 2022-06-15 34 2 1 6 10.26477/jbcd.v34i2.3147 Effect of Optiglaze Coating on the Staphylococcus aurous and Porosity of Heat Cured Acrylic Material https://jbcd.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/jbcd/article/view/3141 <p>Background: Polishing technique for acrylic resin material have great effect on properties of acrylic material and bacterial colonization such as staphylococcus aurous, which are responsible for many acrylic prosthetic infections such as the commonly ocular infections. Ineffective polishing technique could affect roughness and subsequently porosity of acrylic materials.So, a new effective method for polishing acrylic was used depending on the use of optiglaze coating material. So, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of optiglaze polishing on porosity of acrylic resin material and staphylococcus aurous activity in comparison to conventional polishing technique.&nbsp;</p> <p>Materials and methods: Specimen(n=120) were prepared :20 specimens constructed as circle shaped diameter 30mm with 1 mm thickness for porosity &nbsp;test (10 control polishing by conventional technique and 10 polishing by optiglaze technique). Other 82 specimens were prepared as circle specimen (6mm diameter and 1mm thickness) for sensitivity and adherences test ( each test have 20 specimens10 control and 10 optiglaze) and 42 specimens for viability test for three dilution,21 specimens for control and 21 for optiglaze (7 specimens for each dilution). Porosity were tested by light microscopic while agar well technique, adherence test and viability count test were tested for antibacterial activity of optiglaze against staphylococcus aurous.</p> <p>Result: The high mean value for porosity test was recorded by control while low mean value was recorded by optiglaze group with significant differences between them. Sensitivity and adherence test high mean value recorded by optiglaze with highly significant differences in comparison to control. Viability count test all dilution 10<sup>-7</sup> ,10<sup>-6</sup>, 10<sup>-5</sup> showed highly significant reduction in viability count of staphylococcus aurous by optiglaze group in comparison to control. Conclusion Polishing technique by Optiglaze significantly decrease porosity of acrylic resin and this method inhibited growth of staphylococcus aurous, and decrease its viable count (have antibacterial effect) but had less effect in adherence of this bacterial in comparison to control.</p> Amal A Rashid Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-15 2022-06-15 34 2 7 16 10.26477/jbcd.v34i2.3141 Clinicopathological analysis of 80 cases of oral lobular and non lobular capillary hemangioma (pyogenic granuloma): A Retrospective study https://jbcd.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/jbcd/article/view/3142 <p>Background<strong>: </strong>Oral pyogenic granuloma (PG) is a clinicopathological entity that could develop due to the reaction to a variety of stimuli, such as low-grade local irritation, traumatic damage, and hormonal stimulation. There are two histopathological types of pyogenic granuloma; lobular type -capillary hemangioma (LCH) and non-lobular type; with PG,LCH has highly vascular, diffuse capillary growth while non- lobular variant mimicking granulation tissue with heavily inflammated stroma. The study aims were to review the clinical &nbsp;and histopathological spectrum of an oral pyogenic granuloma from different intraoral sites in order to avoid diagnostic pitfalls associated with similar morphological lesions and to determine whether lobular and non-lobular histopathological subtypes being &nbsp;distinct entities.</p> <p>Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of eighty formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks (40 cases each of males and females) were retrieved from the archives of Oral &amp; Maxillofacial Pathology at the University of Baghdad, from 1979 to 2017. According to Mills &nbsp;et al., criteria for lobular capillary hemangioma description, the diagnosis of each case was confirmed by the examination of Hematoxylin and Eosin stained sections by an expert pathologists.</p> <p>Results:The present result revealed that patients with oral pyogenic granuloma were with age range from 12 to 59 years, with a mean of 30.57 years. Fourty nine cases (61.25%) out of eighty were of lobular pattern and 31 cases (38.7%) of non-lobular pattern type PG. The most common site of LCH was in the buccal mucosa, 12 cases (75%), while higher case numbers were observed in the 21-30 year age group. There were non-significant differences between lobular and non-lobular pattern prevalence regarding age groups and between other studied variables.</p> <p>Conclusio: It has been proposed that LCH and non-LCH subtypes reflect distinct phases in the development of a single lesion, which exhibits variable degrees of proliferative, angiogenic, and inflammatory activities.</p> Karrar N Shareef Bashar H Abdullah Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-17 2022-06-17 34 2 17 24 10.26477/jbcd.v34i2.3142 Surface Characterization of PEKK Modified by stron-tium –hydroxyapatite coating as implant material Via the magnetron sputtering Deposition technique https://jbcd.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/jbcd/article/view/3143 <p>Background: The best material for dental implants is polyetherketoneketone (PEKK). However, this substance is neither osteoinductive nor osteoconductive, preventing direct bone apposition. Modifying the PEKK with bioactive elements like strontium hydroxyapatite is one method to overcome this (Sr-HA). Due to the technique's capacity to provide better control over the coating's properties, RF magnetron sputtering has been found to be a particularly useful technique for deposition.</p> <p>Materials and methods : With specific sputtering conditions, the RF magnetron technique was employed to provide a homogeneous and thin coating on Polyetherketoneketone substrates.. the coatings were characterized by Contact angle, adhesion test, X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope and Elemental Analysis with Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX)</p> <p>Results : indicated that strontium hydroxyapatite had successfully deposited onto the surface with significant improvement in the wettability value to provide a suitable environment for cell attachment, spreading, proliferation, and differentiation</p> <p>Conclusion: Coating PEKK with RF magnetron sputtering can provide homogeneous surfaces laying the groundwork for improving PEKK's potential bioactivity, such as surface wettability. Wetting qualities are critical in implantable materials and are used to predict future osseointegration success.</p> Ghasak H Jani Abdalbseet A Fatalla Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-15 2022-06-15 34 2 25 36 10.26477/jbcd.v34i2.3143 Effects of various analgesics on pain perception and rate of tooth movement: a randomized controlled clinical study https://jbcd.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/jbcd/article/view/3144 <p>Background: Pain is one of the most reported side effects of orthodontic treatment despite the advanced technology in orthodontics. Many analgesics have been introduced to control orthodontic pain including acetaminophen and selective and nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The great concern about these drugs is their adverse effect on rate of teeth movement. Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of acetaminophen, ibuprofen and etoricoxib on pain perception and their influence on the rate of teeth movement during leveling and alignment stage. Methods: Forty patients were evenly and randomly distributed in a blinded way to one of four groups: placebo (starch capsules), acetaminophen 500mg thrice daily, ibuprofen 400mg thrice daily, and etoricoxib 60mg once daily. The drugs were given one hour before bonding and archwire placement and continued for three days. A visual analogue scale was used to express pain levels before and after archwire placement, on the first, second, third, and seventh day. Little’s irregularity index was measured before bonding and at every activation visit until the end of the alignment and leveling stage. Results: All three drugs showed a lower pain level than placebo at the bonding and first activation visits. Etoricoxib showed the least pain level among other drugs followed by ibuprofen. No statistically significant differences were found between the drug groups and the placebo at the second and third activation visits. No statistically significant differences were detected between the 4 experimental groups concerning the rate of teeth movement. Conclusions: The three drugs were only effective in controlling pain during the first two visits of orthodontic treatment; and etoricoxib 60mg/day was the best. All three drugs had no influence on rate of teeth movement when used in their least recommended dose.</p> Asem A Abdaljawwad Dheaa H Al-Groosh Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-15 2022-06-15 34 2 37 51 10.26477/jbcd.v34i2.3144 Molecular Detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis in COVID-19 Patients https://jbcd.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/jbcd/article/view/3145 <p>Background:SARS-CoV-2 infection has caused a global pandemic that continues to negatively impact human health. A large group of microbial domains including bacteria co-evolved and interacted in complex molecular pathogenesis along with SARS-CoV-2. Evidence suggests that periodontal disease bacteria are involved in COVID-19, and are associated with chronic inflammatory systemic diseases. This study was performed to investigate the association between bacterial loads of <em>Porphyromonas gingivalis</em> and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Fifty patients with confirmed COVID-19 by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, their age ranges between 20-76 years, and 35 healthy volunteers (matched accordingly with age and sex to the patients) participated in this case control study. Oral hygiene status was determined by the simplified oral hygiene index. Blood and saliva samples were obtained from patients and controls, <em>Porphyromonas gingivalis</em> quantification from extracted DNA of blood and saliva samples performed by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction. The present result revealed that the quantity of salivary <em>Porphyromonas gingivalis</em> was significantly higher (p=0.003) in the patients’ group than in the controls group, while there was no significant difference in the number of bacteria in the blood samples between the two groups. Moreover, the number of bacteria in severe cases was higher than that in moderate and mild with no significant differences, and there was a significant increase in the number of bacteria among patients with poor oral hygiene compared to patients with good oral hygiene. This study demonstrated that the high level of salivary <em>Porphyromonas gingivalis</em> in patients increases in number with disease severity, which may indicate that bacterial infections contribute to the spread of the disease.</p> Haifa H Kareem Batool H Al-Ghurabi Cinaria Albadri Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-15 2022-06-15 34 2 52 61 10.26477/jbcd.v34i2.3145 Assessment of salivary immunoglobulin A, interleu-kin-6 and C-reactive protein in chronic kidney dis-ease patients on hemodialysis and on conservative treatment https://jbcd.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/jbcd/article/view/3146 <p>Background: Chronic kidney disease is a gradual loss of kidney function with diabetes and hypertension as the leading cause. Chronic kidney disease is one of these systemic diseases that can affect salivary contents. Aims: This study aimed to assess salivary immunoglobulin A, interleukin-6 and C- reactive protein in chronic kidney disease patients on hemodialysis and those on conservative treatment in comparison with control subjects. Materials and methods: Ninety subjects were included in this study divided into three groups: 30 patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis for at least 6 months ago; 30 patients with chronic kidney disease on conservative treatment and 30 healthy control subjects. Secretory immunoglobulin A, interleukin-6 and C- reactive protein in saliva samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA. Results: No significant difference in salivary immunoglobulin A level among study groups was seen. A significant increase in salivary interleukin-6 and C- reactive protein in both chronic kidney disease patients on hemodialysis and those on conservative treatment compared to the control group. While, no significant salivary IL-6 and CRP differences were seen between both patient groups, on hemodialysis and conservative treatment. Conclusions: There was no significant difference among chronic kidney disease patients on hemodialysis, on conservative treatment and control healthy subjects regarding to salivary IgA while Salivary interleukin -6 and C- reactive protein was significantly higher in chronic kidney disease patients on hemodialysis and those on conservative treatment compared to healthy subjects.</p> Ithar K Salim Ameena R Diajil Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-15 2022-06-15 34 2 62 73 10.26477/jbcd.v34i2.3146 Potential of Salivary Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 to Discriminate Periodontal health and disease https://jbcd.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/jbcd/article/view/3148 <p>Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease resulted from aggravated immune response to a dysbiotic subgingival microbiota of a susceptible host. Consequences of periodontitis are not only limited to the devastating effect on the oral cavity but extends to affect general health of the individual and also exerts economic burdens on the health systems worldwide. Despite these serious outcomes of periodontitis; however, they are avoidable by early diagnosis with proper preventive measures or non-invasive interventions at earlier stages of the disease. Clinically, diagnosis of periodontitis could be overlooked due to certain limitations of the conventional diagnostic methods such as periodontal charting and radiographs. Utilization of readily available biomarkers in the oral biofluids represents a potential opportunity to overcome these issues. This topic received great attention in the last decades and one of these biomarkers is matrix metalloproteinase 9 which is highlighted in this review as one of the candidates that can be used for diagnosis of periodontal diseases</p> Ahmed R Atarchi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-15 2022-06-15 34 2 74 79 10.26477/jbcd.v34i2.3148