Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry <p><strong>Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD)</strong> is the official publication of the College of Dentistry/ University of Baghdad. It is a peer-reviewed, Open Access scientific journal that is published quarterly. It publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering all areas of dentistry, including periodontics, orthodontics, conservative and aesthetic dentistry, preventive and pediatric dentistry, prosthodontics, oral medicine and pathology, oral and maxillofacial surgery, dental biomaterials, as well as clinically relevant&nbsp;oral biology. The journal’s editorial board represents an international composition of eminent researchers in dentistry from across the globe. The Journal aims to influence the dental practice at clinician, research and industry levels on an international basis.</p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/nasseer/cover_en_US4.png"></a>&nbsp;</p> <h2><strong class="strongred">Publisher:</strong></h2> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">College of Dentistry/ University of Baghdad</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h2><strong class="strongred">Sponsers:</strong></h2> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University of Baghdad</a></p> College of dentistry/ University of baghdad en-US Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry 1680-0087 <p>Licenses and Copyright</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The following policy applies in The Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD):</p> <p>&nbsp;<br># JBCD applies the&nbsp;Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license&nbsp;to articles and other works we publish. If you submit your paper for publication by JBCD, you agree to have the CC BY license applied to your work. Under this Open Access license, you as the author agree that anyone can reuse your article in whole or part for any purpose, for free, even for commercial purposes. Anyone may copy, distribute, or reuse the content&nbsp;as long as the author and original source are properly cited. This facilitates freedom in re-use and also ensures that JBCD content can be mined without barriers for the needs of research.</p> <p># If your manuscript contains content such as photos, images, figures, tables, audio files, videos, etc., that you or your co-authors do not own, we will require you to provide us with proof that the owner of that content (a) has given you written permission to use it, and (b) has approved of the CC BY license being applied to their content. We provide a form you can use to ask for and obtain permission from the owner.&nbsp; If you do not have owner permission, we will ask you to remove that content and/or replace it with other content that you own or have such permission to use.Don't assume that you can use any content you find on the Internet, or that the content is fair game just because it isn't clear who the owner is or what license applies. It's up to you to ascertain what rights you have—if any—to use that content.</p> <p># Many authors assume that if they previously published a paper through another publisher, they own the rights to that content and they can freely use that content in their paper, but that’s not necessarily the case – it depends on the license that covers the other paper. Some publishers allow free and unrestricted re-use of article content they own, such as under the CC BY license. Other publishers use licenses that allow re-use only if the same license is applied by the person or publisher re-using the content. If the paper was published under a CC BY license or another license that allows free and unrestricted use, you may use the content in your JBCD paper provided that you give proper attribution, as explained above.If the content was published under a more restrictive license, you must ascertain what rights you have under that license. At a minimum, review the license to make sure you can use the content. Contact that JBCD if you have any questions about the license. If the license does not permit you to use the content in a paper that will be covered by an unrestricted license, you must obtain written permission from the publisher to use the content in your JBCD paper.&nbsp;Please do not include any content in your JBCD paper which you do not have rights to use, and always&nbsp;give proper attribution.</p> <p># If any relevant accompanying data is submitted to repositories with stated licensing policies, the policies should not be more restrictive than CC BY.</p> <p># JBCD reserves the right to remove any photos, captures, images, figures, tables, illustrations, audio and video files, and the like, from any paper, whether before or after publication, if we have reason to believe that the content was included in your paper without permission from the owner of the content.</p> Efficacy of arthrocentesis with injection of hyaluronic acid in the treatment of inflammatory-degenerative disease of temporomandibular joint <p>Background:Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) problems refer to a group of heterogeneous pain and dysfunction conditions involving the mastication, reducing life quality of the patients. Arthrocentesis is a simple and less invasive surgical method for the treatment of inflammatory-degenerative disease than other conservative procedures and better than arthroscope. This clinical study aimed at evaluating the benefit of arthrocentesis with injection of hyaluronic acid in the management of inflammatory-degenerative disease of the TMJ. Material and methods: Eighty consecutive patients were enrolled in this study with pain symptoms of TMJ, insufficient masticatory efficiency during function and limitation of mouth opening; they were assessed with clinical examination and approved with computed tomography scan. Arthrocentesis was done by inserting 18 gauge needles in the upper joint compartment, lavage by normal saline solution and at the end of the procedure 1ml of hyaluronic acid (HA) was injected. Intensity of the TMJ pain and masticatory efficiency was analyzed by visual analog scale (VAS), maximum mouth opening (MMO) was assessed by a ruler. All the assessed parameters were measured before the procedure then 1 and 4 months later. Results: During 5 months follow-up, comparison of the obtained results showed reduction in pain at chewing and rest 87.5%, improvement in mouth opening 100% and significant improvement in masticatory efficiency 87.5% of patients. Conclusion: The procedure of arthrocentesis with Sodium Hyaluronate injection, used in patients who suffered from inflammatory-degenerative disease (IDD), showed therapeutic benefits, simplicity, safety, patient satisfaction, lack of significant side effects and complications.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Enas A Abdulmaged Thair Abdul Lateef ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-15 2021-03-15 33 1 1 5 10.26477/jbcd.v33i1.2920 Depression status in relation to dental caries and salivary C-Reactive Protein among 17 years old secondary school female in Baghdad City/Iraq. <p>Background: Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity, it can affect a person's thoughts, behavior and sense of well-being. It can affect oral health and lead to an increased risk of dental caries. Dental caries is the most common oral infectious diseases that stresses the immune system and causes changes in cellular and molecular components of peripheral blood and C-Reactive Protein is one of these components, considered a key biomarker of inflammation. This study was conducted to assess the effect of depression status on dental caries among 17 years old secondary school female students in relation to salivary C-Reactive Protein. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried and the whole sample composed of 500 female students selected from First Alrasafa Directorate schools in Baghdad/ Iraq. Consent form was achieved from the ethical approval committee in College of Dentistry/University of Baghdad. All students were subjected to Children Depression Inventory questionnaire by Kovacs in 2011. Dental caries was registered according to Manji et al. 1989, Decay (1-4) Missing-Filled surface index. Subsamples were selected from high and low grade of depression to analyze C-Reactive Protein. Results: The percentage of occurrence of depression was 100%. The mean value of caries experience and severity were found to be higher among female students with high depression grade in comparison with low depression grade. The mean value for C-Reactive Protein was higher in high depression grade. There is a diversity in the results of caries experience with C-Reactive Protein. The percentage of depression occurrence was 100% which means a high degree of depression, and this could be due to the life difficulties, tension and economic issues that all lead to mental problems. The severity of dental caries increased as a result of stress and anxiety that may cause poor dental health. Psychological factors interact through complex pathophysiological and behavioral mechanisms that may cause elevated C-Reactive Protein. Conclusion: Depression has a negative impact on a person’s oral health including dental caries. Elevated C-Reactive Protein levels have been associated with psychological depression.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Noor A Al-Bazaz Nada J MH Radhi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-15 2021-03-15 33 1 6 11 10.26477/jbcd.v33i1.2921 Prevalence of self-reported halitosis and associated factors in 15 years old male students in Karbala City-Iraq <p>Background׃ Halitosis is a common condition and is most often caused by a buildup of bacteria in the mouth because of gum disease, food, or plaque. It can result in anxiety among those affected, it is also associated with depression and symptoms of obsessive compulsive disorder. The aim of this study isto assess the prevalence of self-reported halitosis and associated factors (dental plaque, gingival condition and dental caries) in 15 years old male students in Karbala city in Iraq. Additionally, we studied adolescents’ concern with their own breath and whether anyone had ever told them that they had halitosis. Methods׃ A cross sectional observational survey was conducted to15 years old high school students from public and private schools in the city of Karbala, Iraq. The random sample consisted of 400 adolescents from 44 schools. An interview with a structured questionnaire was administered along with measurement of oral parameters (PI, GI, DMF). Results׃ The prevalence of self-reported halitosis was 48.50% according to question one. Prevalence of halitosis according to total score of questionnaire was 86.5%. 13.5% reported that they didn’t have halitosis. It is concluded that there is high prevalence of self-reported halitosis, which is associated with a socioeconomic pattern. Most adolescents report concern with their own breath. Dental plaque and gingival status are associated significantly with self-reported halitosis. The high prevalence of self-reported halitosis according to questionnaire among the students may be due to the consumption of garlic or spicy food, in addition dental plaque, gingivitis and dental caries cause increase in volatile silver compound level which cause increase in halitosis. Conclusion׃ Self-reported halitosis is a prevalent situation in about 50% of adolescents in Karbala city. Patients’ self-reported halitosis is found to be associated with dental plaque, gingivitis and dental caries.</p> Rafal A Alawsiy Nada J MH. Radhi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-15 2021-03-15 33 1 12 18 10.26477/jbcd.v33i1.2922 Comparison between the mesiodistal crown dimensions of second primary molar with stainless steel crowns from different companies <p>Background: Due to the variations in tooth anatomy and size among different populations, this study aimed to compare the mesiodistal width of primary second molars in Iraqi children with the mesiodistal width of stainless-steel crowns from different companies. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 220 intact maxillary and mandibular primary second molars selected from boys and girls’ Iraqi children aged 8-9 years collected from different primary schools in Baghdad city. The mesiodistal dimensions of the selected teeth and the available maxillary and mandibular stainless-steel crowns from three different companies were measured by using a 3-D scanner, and then the whole measurements were calculated using 3 shape Ortho-analyzer software program. Results: Data were analyzed statistically via SPSS V 26 software and the results showed that there’s non-significant difference between the MD measurements of second primary molars between right and left sides, and high significant difference were recorded with higher mean values for boys than girls. When comparing the same mesiodistal measurement between molars with that of stainless-steel crowns, only limited sizes of stainless steel crowns were found to be fitted to the molars of Iraqi children. Conclusion: more studies need to be applied using other stainless steel crown companies to find the relation in the mesiodistal measurement of Iraqi populations.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dunia A Al-Dulaimy Mohammed R Al-khannaq ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-15 2021-03-15 33 1 19 27 10.26477/jbcd.v33i1.2923