Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry <p><strong><span class="s2"><span class="bumpedFont15">Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD)</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15"> </span></span></strong><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">is the official publication of the College of Dentistry</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">,</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15"> University of Baghdad. It is a peer-reviewed, </span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">o</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">pen</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">-a</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">ccess scientific journal that is published quarterly. It publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering all areas of dentistry, including periodontics, orthodontics, </span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">restorative</span></span> <span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">and aesthetic dentistry, preventive and pediatric dentistry, prosthodontics, oral medicine and pathology, oral and maxillofacial surgery, dental biomaterials, as well as clinically relevant oral biology. The journal's editorial board represents an international composition of eminent researchers in dentistry from across the globe. The </span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">j</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">ournal aims to influence the dental practice at clinic</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">al</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">, research and industry levels on an international basis.</span></span></p> College of dentistry/ University of baghdad en-US Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry 1817-1869 <p>Licenses and Copyright</p> <p> </p> <p>The following policy applies in The Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD):</p> <p> <br /># JBCD applies the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license to articles and other works we publish. If you submit your paper for publication by JBCD, you agree to have the CC BY license applied to your work. Under this Open Access license, you as the author agree that anyone can reuse your article in whole or part for any purpose, for free, even for commercial purposes. Anyone may copy, distribute, or reuse the content as long as the author and original source are properly cited. This facilitates freedom in re-use and also ensures that JBCD content can be mined without barriers for the needs of research.</p> <p># If your manuscript contains content such as photos, images, figures, tables, audio files, videos, etc., that you or your co-authors do not own, we will require you to provide us with proof that the owner of that content (a) has given you written permission to use it, and (b) has approved of the CC BY license being applied to their content. We provide a form you can use to ask for and obtain permission from the owner. If you do not have owner permission, we will ask you to remove that content and/or replace it with other content that you own or have such permission to use.Don't assume that you can use any content you find on the Internet, or that the content is fair game just because it isn't clear who the owner is or what license applies.</p> <p># Many authors assume that if they previously published a paper through another publisher, they own the rights to that content and they can freely use that content in their paper, but that’s not necessarily the case, it depends on the license that covers the other paper. Some publishers allow free and unrestricted re-use of article content they own, such as under the CC BY license. Other publishers use licenses that allow re-use only if the same license is applied by the person or publisher re-using the content. If the paper was published under a CC BY license or another license that allows free and unrestricted use, you may use the content in your JBCD paper provided that you give proper attribution, as explained above.If the content was published under a more restrictive license, you must ascertain what rights you have under that license. At a minimum, review the license to make sure you can use the content. Contact that JBCD if you have any questions about the license. If the license does not permit you to use the content in a paper that will be covered by an unrestricted license, you must obtain written permission from the publisher to use the content in your JBCD paper. Please do not include any content in your JBCD paper which you do not have rights to use, and always give proper attribution.</p> <p># If any relevant accompanying data is submitted to repositories with stated licensing policies, the policies should not be more restrictive than CC BY.</p> <p># JBCD reserves the right to remove any photos, captures, images, figures, tables, illustrations, audio and video files, and the like, from any paper, whether before or after publication, if we have reason to believe that the content was included in your paper without permission from the owner of the content.</p> In vitro assessment of bracket adhesion post enamel conditioning with a novel etchant paste <p>Background: 37% phosphoric acid (PA) is the traditional enamel etching technique prior to bracket ‎adhesion, yet it has been implicated in numerous enamel injuries. The purpose of the current study was to create a calcium phosphate (CaP) etching paste in a ‎‎simplified capsule ‎formula that can underpin clinically ‎adequate bracket bond strength ‎without jeopardizing the ‎integrity of enamel upon ‎the debracketing procedure. Materials and Methods: micro-sized hydroxyapatite (HA) powder was mixed with 40% PA solution to prepare ‎experimental acidic CaP paste. Sixty human premolars were ‎assigned into two groups of 30 each. ‎Enamel conditioning was accomplished using 37% PA-gel‎ for control group and CaP paste for experimental group. Each group was further divided into two subgroups regarding the water storage (WS) period (24 h and 30 days). Shear bond strength (SBS) test conducted with examination of debonded surfaces for adhesive remnants and enamel damage using a digital microscope. Results: CaP paste produced significantly lower SBS values than PA (p &lt; 0.01), yet sufficient for clinical use. PA etching caused often cracked enamel surfaces with excessive ‎retention of adhesive remnants (mainly ARI scores 2 and 3). Contrarily, enamel treated with the experimental CaP paste exhibited smooth, ‎unblemished surfaces mostly clean of adhesives residues (scores 0 and 1). Conclusion: a newly developed CaP paste in a capsule formula fosters ‎clinically adequate bracket ‎adhesion with a sustained bonding performance, allows a harmless bracket removal with ‎minimal or no adhesive residues on debonded surfaces; thus, it can be introduced as a suitable ‎alternative to PA‎. &nbsp;</p> Hayder A. Kadhim Sanjukta Deb Ali I. Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 35 1 1 9 10.26477/jbcd.v35i1.3309 Anti-inflammatory effects of manuka honey on salivary cytokines (clinical study) <p>Background: Manuka honey (MH) is a mono-floral honey derived from the Manuka tree (Leptospermum scoparium). MH is a highly recognized for its non-peroxide antibacterial activities, which are mostly related to its unique methylglyoxal content (MGO) in MH. The beneficial phytochemicals in MH is directly related to their favorable health effects, which include wound healing, anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of MH on pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-8 and TNF-α) in patients with gingivitis and compare it with chlorhexidine (CHX) and distilled water (DW). Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized, double blinded, and parallel clinical trial. Forty-five young participants aged (20–40) years were randomly selected and allocated into three groups: MH, CHX, and DW mouthwash groups. Each participant was given a random bottle. Five milliliters each of honey-based mouthwash formulation, CHX mouthwashes (0.2%) and DW were used twice daily for 21 days. All the participants were examined twice, once on the zero day (base line) and once after 21 days. Before and after each participant's mouthwash use IL-8 and TNF-α were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: The results revealed a drop in the level of interleukin-8 in the manuka honey group which was statistically significant, but the decrease in the same biomarker in the chlorhexidine group was insignificant statistically. TNF-α levels were found to be insignificantly reduced in both the MH and CHX groups (P˃0.05). The DW group, on the other hand, obtained the opposite outcome in both biomarkers. Conclusion: Mouthwash containing MH had an anti-inflammatory impact, indicating an immunomodulatory action. These signs may be encouraging and promising for the use of MH in treating gingivitis.</p> Mustafa W. Al-Kubaisi Batool H. Al-Ghurabi Waqar Alkubaisy Nik N. ABDULLAH Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 35 1 10 19 10.26477/jbcd.v35i1.3310 Effect of a novel coating material on the microleakage of glass hybrid restoration in primary teeth – An in vitro study <p>Background: Glass ionomer restorations are widely employed in the field of pediatric dentistry. There is a constant demand for a durable restoration that remains functional until exfoliation. This study aimed to measure and compare the effect of a novel coating material (EQUIA Forte Coat) on the microleakage of glass hybrid restoration (EQUIA Forte HT) in primary teeth. Material and method: Thirty cavitated (class-II) primary molars were allocated randomly into two groups based on the coat application; uncoated (control) and coated group (experimental). Cavities were prepared by the use of a ceramic bur (CeraBur) and restored with EQUIA Forte HT with or without applying a protective coat (EQUIA Forte Coat). Samples went through the thermocycling process and dipped in 2% methylene blue dye before being sectioned through the center of the restoration. Microleakage was evaluated digitally using software and a camera connected to a stereomicroscope (30 x magnification) to assess dye penetration of the sectioned samples at both the occlusal and gingival marginal levels. Results: There was a significant difference between the coated and uncoated groups at both occlusal (p=.029) and gingival margin sites (p=.001). Conclusion: Higher microleakage values were associated with the uncoated group compared to the coated one. The application of a protective coating to the restorations is an efficient approach to decrease the microleakage of the restorations that can be usefully adopted in clinical practice.</p> Halah Abdulkareem A. Alkhawaja Aseel Haidar M.J. Al Haidar Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 35 1 20 26 10.26477/jbcd.v35i1.3311 Salivary protein carbonyl and selected antioxidants in relation to dental caries among pregnant women <p>Background: Pregnancy is a physiological condition that affects the general and oral health.It is also associated with an increase in oxidative stress, which may presispose to oral diseases including dental caries. Aim of the study: This study aimed to measure salivary protein carbonyl, glutathione peroxidase and selenium levels of women who are pregnant and their association with dental caries in comparison to non-pregnant women, and to find out the mostly affected biomarker of oxidative stress during pregnancy. Subjects, materials and methods: A cross-sectional research was performed for a samples of 30 pregnant and 30 non-pregnant women who were chosen from city of Baghdad's Primary Healthcare Centers. Both groups aged 25-30 years. In unstimulated salivary samples protein carbonyl and glutathione peroxidase were determined colorimetrically using spectrophotometer by utilizing ready-made assay kits. Salivary selenium level was obtained by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Plaque index had been used to determine the thickness of dental plaque. Caries was recorded using the Decayed, Missing, and Filled (DMF) index. described by WHO in 1997. Data was statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics method and Student's t-test, Wilcoxon sum rank test and Spearman’s correlation in addition to Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve (ROC test) (α=5%). Results: The plaque index and salivary protein carbonyl values were significantly higher among pregnant while salivary selenium and glutathione peroxidase recorded significantly lower levels among pregnant women. Dental caries parameters were higher among pregnant with significant difference for MS fraction only. ROC area for protein carbonyl equal one with highest sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion: Pregnant women recorded higher dental caries severity with higher salivary protein oxidation but lowers salivary antioxidant defense mechanisms. Salivary protein carbonyl is more ideal, valid and mostly affected biomarker in revealing the oxidative stress status during pregnancy</p> Baydaa H. Awn Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 35 1 27 35 10.26477/jbcd.v35i1.3312 Effect of adding titanium dioxide nanoparticles on anti-microbial activity and surface detail reproduction of dental alginate <p>Most dental works require a diagnostic impression; alginate is contemplated as the most popular material used for this purpose. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles show evidence of antimicrobial activity in the recent era, for this purpose, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of adding Titanium dioxide nanoparticles on antimicrobial activity and surface detail reproduction of alginate impression material. Materials and methods: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (purity = 99%, size= 20nm) was added to alginate at three different concentrations (2%, 3% and 5%). 84 samples were prepared in total. Samples were tested for antimicrobial activity using a disc diffusion test, and surface detail reproduction was done using (ISO 21563:2021). One-way ANOVA and independent sample t-test were used for data analysis through SPSS software. Results: for the antimicrobial test, inhibition zones for <em>Streptococcus mutans </em>and<em> Candida albicans</em> showed significant changes concerning the alteration in Titanium dioxide nanoparticle concentrations. The inhibition zone significantly increased with an increase in the percentage of Titanium dioxide nanoparticles. The mean of the inhibition zone for <em>S. mutans </em>was superior to <em>C. albicans</em> and the difference was statistically significant<em>.</em> Regarding surface detail reproduction, the control group, 2% and 3% groups manifested very similar results, only the group to which 5% of Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were added showed a decline in detail reproduction when compared to the other three groups. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, we can conclude that the antimicrobial activity against <em>S mutans</em> and <em>C. albicans </em>were significantly increased in modified groups, and this escalation was directly linked to the increase in Titanium dioxide nanoparticles concentration. In contrast, the surface detail reproduction was decreased when adding 5% Titanium dioxide nanoparticles to alginate.</p> Ranj A. Omer Hoshang Kh. Abdel-Rahman Mahabad M. Saleh Sazgar S.Q. Al-Hawezi Fahd S. Ikram Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 35 1 36 48 10.26477/jbcd.v35i1.3313 Crystallization firing effect on the marginal discrepancy of the IPS. emax CAD crowns using two different CAD/CAM systems <p>Background: Marginal adaptation is critical for long – term success of crown and bridge restoration. Computer aided design / computer aided manufacture (CAD/ CAM) system is gaining more importance in the fabrication of dental restoration. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of crystallization firing on the vertical marginal gap of IPS. emax CAD crowns which fabricated with two different CAD/CAM systems .Materials and Methods: Twenty IPS e.max CAD crowns were fabricated. We had two major groups (A, B) (10 crowns for each group) according to the CAD/CAM system being used: Group A: fabricated with Imes - Icore CAD/CAM system; Group B: fabricated with In Lab Sirona CAD/CAM system. Each group was subdivided into two subgroups pre-crystallized (Group A1, B1) and crystallized crowns (Group A2, B2). At four points on each aspect of the crown, marginal gaps were assessed on the master metal die by using digital microscope at a magnification of (110X) and image- J program. The measurement was done twice for each crown; before and after crystallization process.Results: The lowest mean of marginal gap before and after crystallization was (29.387±2.774μm) and (70.108±5.569μm) respectively for Group A (Imes - Icore system) and the highest mean value before and after crystallization was (51.728 ±3.774μm) and (84.071 ±4.567μm) respectively for Group B (Sirona system). Paired sample t-test result showed a statistically highly significant difference in marginal gap between all groups.Conclusions: The crystallization process increases the vertical marginal gap. Imes - Icore system showed the lower marginal gap than Sirona system. The two systems have an acceptable marginal gap</p> Fatima K Ghadeer Lateef E Alwan Abdul Kareem J Al-Azzawi Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 35 1 49 57 10.26477/jbcd.v35i1.3316 Different methods of canine retraction- Part 2 <p>Background: This review aims to discuss various canine retraction techniques using frictionless mechanics. Methods: Between 1930 and February 2022, searches were conducted about various canine retraction techniques using fixed orthodontic appliances in various databases, including PubMed Central, Science Direct, Wiley Online Library, the Cochrane Library, Textbooks, Google Scholar, Research Gate, and manual searching. Results: After removing the duplicate articles, publications that described how to use archwires to perform canine retraction with the archwires were included. Conclusions: The pros and cons of various canine retraction techniques using archwires were thoroughly discussed. T-loop is the preferred spring of all because of its characteristics</p> Mohammed Nahidh Yassir A. Yassir Grant T. McIntyre Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 35 1 58 75 10.26477/jbcd.v35i1.3314 Complete Blood Count and saliva parameters as an indicator for infected patients with coronavirus covid-19 <p>Background: Coronavirus, which causes respiratory illness, has been a public health issue in recent decades. Because the clinical symptoms of infection are not always specific, it is difficult to expose all suspects to qualitative testing in order to confirm or rule out infection as a test. Methods: According to the scientific studies and investigations, seventy-three results of scientific articles and research&nbsp; were obtained using PubMed, Medline, Research gate and Google Scholar. The research keywords used were COVID-19, coronavirus, blood parameters, and saliva. Results: This review provides a report on the changes in the blood and saliva tests of those who are infected with the COVID-19.COVID-19 is a systemic infection that has a substantial influence on the hematological system and hemostasis, thus deviations from normal levels of laboratory tests, including the blood and saliva test show that specific testing for detecting COVID-19 infection is required. Conclusions: The blood and saliva tests aid in the clinical monitoring of the patient's health.&nbsp; It has advantages such as the following: it has non-invasive properties, low cost, and good stability, addition to minimum risk of infection transport.</p> Sumaiah I Hussein Suha T Abd Fadia A AL-khayat Heba k Mahmood Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 35 1 76 85 10.26477/jbcd.v35i1.3317