Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry <p><strong><span class="s2"><span class="bumpedFont15">Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD)</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">&nbsp;</span></span></strong><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">is the official publication of the College of Dentistry</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">,</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15"> University of Baghdad. It is a peer-reviewed, </span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">o</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">pen</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">-a</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">ccess scientific journal that is published quarterly. It publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering all areas of dentistry, including periodontics, orthodontics, </span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">restorative</span></span> <span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">and aesthetic dentistry, preventive and pediatric dentistry, prosthodontics, oral medicine and pathology, oral and maxillofacial surgery, dental biomaterials, as well as clinically relevant&nbsp;oral biology. The journal’s editorial board represents an international composition of eminent researchers in dentistry from across the globe. The </span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">j</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">ournal aims to influence the dental practice at clinic</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">al</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">, research and industry levels on an international basis.</span></span></p> College of dentistry/ University of baghdad en-US Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry 2311-5270 <p>Licenses and Copyright</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The following policy applies in The Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD):</p> <p>&nbsp;<br># JBCD applies the&nbsp;Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license&nbsp;to articles and other works we publish. If you submit your paper for publication by JBCD, you agree to have the CC BY license applied to your work. Under this Open Access license, you as the author agree that anyone can reuse your article in whole or part for any purpose, for free, even for commercial purposes. Anyone may copy, distribute, or reuse the content&nbsp;as long as the author and original source are properly cited. This facilitates freedom in re-use and also ensures that JBCD content can be mined without barriers for the needs of research.</p> <p># If your manuscript contains content such as photos, images, figures, tables, audio files, videos, etc., that you or your co-authors do not own, we will require you to provide us with proof that the owner of that content (a) has given you written permission to use it, and (b) has approved of the CC BY license being applied to their content. We provide a form you can use to ask for and obtain permission from the owner.&nbsp; If you do not have owner permission, we will ask you to remove that content and/or replace it with other content that you own or have such permission to use.Don't assume that you can use any content you find on the Internet, or that the content is fair game just because it isn't clear who the owner is or what license applies. It's up to you to ascertain what rights you have—if any—to use that content.</p> <p># Many authors assume that if they previously published a paper through another publisher, they own the rights to that content and they can freely use that content in their paper, but that’s not necessarily the case – it depends on the license that covers the other paper. Some publishers allow free and unrestricted re-use of article content they own, such as under the CC BY license. Other publishers use licenses that allow re-use only if the same license is applied by the person or publisher re-using the content. If the paper was published under a CC BY license or another license that allows free and unrestricted use, you may use the content in your JBCD paper provided that you give proper attribution, as explained above.If the content was published under a more restrictive license, you must ascertain what rights you have under that license. At a minimum, review the license to make sure you can use the content. Contact that JBCD if you have any questions about the license. If the license does not permit you to use the content in a paper that will be covered by an unrestricted license, you must obtain written permission from the publisher to use the content in your JBCD paper.&nbsp;Please do not include any content in your JBCD paper which you do not have rights to use, and always&nbsp;give proper attribution.</p> <p># If any relevant accompanying data is submitted to repositories with stated licensing policies, the policies should not be more restrictive than CC BY.</p> <p># JBCD reserves the right to remove any photos, captures, images, figures, tables, illustrations, audio and video files, and the like, from any paper, whether before or after publication, if we have reason to believe that the content was included in your paper without permission from the owner of the content.</p> Prevalence of viral co-infection among COVID-19 cases in association disease severity and oral hygiene <p>Background: In December 2019, an episode of COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV2) was reported in Wuhan, China and has spread around the world, increasing the number of contagions. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are common herpesviruses that can cause persistent latent infections and affect the developing immune system.The study was conducted to explore the prevalence and reactivation of CMV and EBV antibodies in COVID-19 patients group in comparison to healthy group and to investigate the association between the presence of these viruses with each of severity of disease and oral hygiene. Materials and Methods: Eighty Five subjects were participated in this case control study (50 patients with COVID-19 and 35 healthy controls), their age range from 18 to 77 years. Oral health status was established by oral hygiene index. Serum obtained from patients and controls was analyzed using ELISA to assess levels of anti- CMV and anti- EBV antibodies. Results: The study revealed that the mean of anti-EBV IgG in patients was significantly elevated (p&lt;0.01) than that in controls. Otherwise, there was no significant difference (p&gt;0.05) in levels of anti- EBV IgM, anti- CMV IgG and IgM between two groups (P&gt;0.05). In addition there were no significant differences between patients and controls (p&gt;0.05) in the number and percentage of anti-EBV and anti-CMV antibodies. Interestingly, there was a significant increase in the level of anti-CMV IgM in severe cases as compared to mild cases, (P&lt;0.01). Furthermore, these results revealed that there were no significant differences (P&gt;0.05) in levels of anti-viral antibodies in patients with good oral hygiene compared to patients with poor oral hygiene. Conclusions: Higher frequency of anti-EBV IgG among patients indicates that latent infection is more common in COVID-19 patients. While an increased percentage of anti-CMV IgM indicated reactivation of latent infection and is related to disease severity suggesting that COVID-19 can cause cellular immune impairment.</p> Zeina S Adham Batool H Al-Ghurabi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 33 3 1 8 10.26477/jbcd.v33i3.2947 Effect of plasma treatment on the bond of soft denture liner to conventional and high impact acrylic denture materials <p>Background: The main drawback of soft lining materials was that they debonded from the denture base after a certain period of usage. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to determine the impact of oxygen and argon plasma treatment on the shear bonding strength of soft liners to two different kinds of denture base materials: conventional acrylic resin and high impact acrylic resin. Materials and Methods: Heat cure conventional and high impact acrylic blocks (40 for each group) were prepared. A soft liner connected the final test specimen of two blocks of each acrylic material. Shear bond strength (SBS) was assessed using universal testing machine. Additional blocks were also prepared for analyzing Vickers microhardness, contact angle, FTIR and AFM. The results were statistically analyzed using paired-sample T-test and independent-samples T-test (α=0.05). Results: The results showed a highly significant increase in SBS following plasma treatment with the highest mean value observed in plasma treated high impact acrylic specimen. Along with a significant rise in wettability, while microhardness was preserved. Conclusion: In conclusion, oxygen and argon plasma treatment was significantly effective in enhancing the SBS between soft liner and acrylic materials.</p> Lubna M Qanber Thekra I Hamad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 33 3 9 17 10.26477/jbcd.v33i3.2948 The effect of contact time between alginate impression material and type III dental stone on the surface properties of stone casts <p>Background: Alginate impression material is the irreversible hydrocolloid material that is widely used in dentistry. The contact time between alginate and gypsum cast could have a detrimental effect on the properties of the gypsum cast. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of various contact time intervals of Alginate impressions &amp; type III dental stone on surface properties of stone cast. Materials and Methods: Time intervals tested were 1hour, 6 hours and 9 hours. Surface properties of stone cast evaluated were surface detail reproduction, hardness and roughness. Surface detail reproduction was determined using cylindrical brass test block in accordance with ISO 1563. Surface roughness was measured by profilometer and hardness was measured by Durometer (Shore D). Results: The detail reproduction showed significant difference (P&lt;0.05), at 6 hr., and 9 hr. showed better results. While surface roughness significantly decreased (p&lt;0.01) with prolonged contact time. However, surface hardness increased significantly (p&lt;0.01) with increased contact time. Conclusions: Surface detail reproduction increased with increasing the contact time and this was noticed at (6, 9 hours). However, 1hour time interval showed decreased surface detailed reproduction. Roughness decreased when the contact time was increased between type III dental stone and alginate impression whereas, hardness was improved significantly with increasing contact time.</p> Suha F Dulaimi Atyaf M Alnaser Najwah Y Hameed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 33 3 18 22 10.26477/jbcd.v33i3.2949 The estimation of the viable count of mutans streptococcus in waterpipe smokers and cigarette smokers <p>Background: Waterpipe and cigarette are two products of tobacco consumption, tobacco use has detrimental effects on the oral cavity, numerous studies around the world have reported a significant relationship between smoking and increase dental caries and viable count of cariogenic bacteria, Materials and Methods: unstimulated saliva was collected from 84 subjects and divided equally into three groups waterpipe smokers, cigarette smokers, and non-smokers all of the participants are adult male aged between 25-60 years, dental caries was measured by use DMFT index, while S.mutans and S.sobrinus were isolated by using a selective medium SB 20M (Sugar bacitracin-20 modified) agar Results: this present study showed a significant (p≤0.01). higher DMFT, DT, MT, and FT among cigarette smokers group than both waterpipe smokers and non-smokers groups. The viable count of S mutans was significantly (p≤0.01).higher in the cigarette smokers group followed by the waterpipe smokers group and then the non-smoker's group, while the viable count of S sobrinus showed no statistical differences (P&gt;0.05) between groups. The correlation of DMFT with S.mutans, and S sobrinus count, were significantly positive (p ≤0.05), in the cigarette smokers group only Conclusion: Dental caries increase in cigarette smokers, where the DMFT and S mutans viable count are less affected by waterpipe than cigarette smoking, a positive correlation is found between DMFT and .mutans streptococcus count only in cigarette smokers</p> Ausama A Fathallh Maha A Mahmood ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 33 3 23 29 10.26477/jbcd.v33i3.2950 Diet and orthodontics- A review <p>During the course of fixed orthodontic therapy, patients should be instructed to eat specific food stuffs and beverages in order to maintain good health for the dentition and supporting structures and prevent frequent attachment debonding that prolong the treatment duration. After searching and collecting articles from 1930 till July 2021, the current review was prepared to emphasize various types of foods that should be taken during the course of fixed orthodontic therapy and to explain the effect of various food stuffs and beverages on the growth and development of craniofacial structures, tooth surfaces, root resorption, tooth movement, retention and stability after orthodontic treatment and the effect on the components of fixed orthodontic appliance.</p> Maymona a Ibraheem Mohammed Nahidh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 33 3 30 38 10.26477/jbcd.v33i3.2951