Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry <p><strong><span class="s2"><span class="bumpedFont15">Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD)</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15"> </span></span></strong><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">is the official publication of the College of Dentistry</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">,</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15"> University of Baghdad. It is a peer-reviewed, </span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">o</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">pen</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">-a</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">ccess scientific journal that is published quarterly. It publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering all areas of dentistry, including periodontics, orthodontics, </span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">restorative</span></span> <span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">and aesthetic dentistry, preventive and pediatric dentistry, prosthodontics, oral medicine and pathology, oral and maxillofacial surgery, dental biomaterials, as well as clinically relevant oral biology. The journal's editorial board represents an international composition of eminent researchers in dentistry from across the globe. The </span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">j</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">ournal aims to influence the dental practice at clinic</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">al</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">, research and industry levels on an international basis.</span></span></p> College of dentistry/ University of baghdad en-US Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry 1817-1869 <p>Licenses and Copyright</p> <p> </p> <p>The following policy applies in The Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD):</p> <p> <br /># JBCD applies the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license to articles and other works we publish. If you submit your paper for publication by JBCD, you agree to have the CC BY license applied to your work. Under this Open Access license, you as the author agree that anyone can reuse your article in whole or part for any purpose, for free, even for commercial purposes. Anyone may copy, distribute, or reuse the content as long as the author and original source are properly cited. This facilitates freedom in re-use and also ensures that JBCD content can be mined without barriers for the needs of research.</p> <p># If your manuscript contains content such as photos, images, figures, tables, audio files, videos, etc., that you or your co-authors do not own, we will require you to provide us with proof that the owner of that content (a) has given you written permission to use it, and (b) has approved of the CC BY license being applied to their content. We provide a form you can use to ask for and obtain permission from the owner. If you do not have owner permission, we will ask you to remove that content and/or replace it with other content that you own or have such permission to use.Don't assume that you can use any content you find on the Internet, or that the content is fair game just because it isn't clear who the owner is or what license applies.</p> <p># Many authors assume that if they previously published a paper through another publisher, they own the rights to that content and they can freely use that content in their paper, but that’s not necessarily the case, it depends on the license that covers the other paper. Some publishers allow free and unrestricted re-use of article content they own, such as under the CC BY license. Other publishers use licenses that allow re-use only if the same license is applied by the person or publisher re-using the content. If the paper was published under a CC BY license or another license that allows free and unrestricted use, you may use the content in your JBCD paper provided that you give proper attribution, as explained above.If the content was published under a more restrictive license, you must ascertain what rights you have under that license. At a minimum, review the license to make sure you can use the content. Contact that JBCD if you have any questions about the license. If the license does not permit you to use the content in a paper that will be covered by an unrestricted license, you must obtain written permission from the publisher to use the content in your JBCD paper. Please do not include any content in your JBCD paper which you do not have rights to use, and always give proper attribution.</p> <p># If any relevant accompanying data is submitted to repositories with stated licensing policies, the policies should not be more restrictive than CC BY.</p> <p># JBCD reserves the right to remove any photos, captures, images, figures, tables, illustrations, audio and video files, and the like, from any paper, whether before or after publication, if we have reason to believe that the content was included in your paper without permission from the owner of the content.</p> Assessment of alveolar bone height in adolescents utilizing Cone Beam Computed Tomography: a retrospective radiographic analysis Background: To assess the alveolar bone crest level (ABCL) by Cone Beam Computed To-mography (CBCT) and to investigate several variables as predictors for the height of the alveolar bone in adolescents. Materials and methods: Age, sex, and ethnic groups were rec-orded for each patient. CBCT images were used to obtain measurements of the interproximal alveolar bone level from the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) to the alveolar crest. The highest measurement in each sextant was recorded along with any presence of a vertical bone defect or calculus. Results: Total of 720 measurements were recorded for 120 subjects. No vertical bony defects or calculus were observed radiographically. Statistically significant (P< 0.05) differences were observed between ABCL measurements of males as compared to females, posterior teeth compared to anterior teeth and maxillary sextants in comparison to man-dibular ones. Additionally, value of ABCL significantly increased in relation to sex (r=0.309), maxillary posterior (r=0.509) and mandibular posterior sextants (r=0.506). Linear regression analysis indicated that the latter variables can predict the height of marginal bone, other independent variables were considered redundant. Conclusions: There was a low-profile of marginal bone loss among adolescents. Male sex, posterior teeth, and maxillary teeth have higher tendency for decreasing alveolar bone height. Zaid R Atarchi D Douglas Miley Ahmed R Atarchi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry 2022-03-15 2022-03-15 34 1 1 11 10.26477/jbcd.v34i1.3086 Compliance of patients with Class III malocclusion to orthodontic treatment Background: Although the new treatment methods developed in recent years are aiming to minimize the need for cooperation of the patients; however, the latter still important factor the treatment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the cooperation level of Class III maloc-clusion patients with orthodontic treatment. Materials and methods: This study followed a cross-sectional style; the targeted population was patients with Class III malocclusion who were treated with three different types of orthopaedic appliances. Four questionnaires were delivered to the patient, patient’s parents, and orthodontists. Statistical analyses of the study were performed with SPSS 20.0 software. Descriptive analyses were presented using fre-quency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation. Results: The study included a total of 183 orthodontic patients in the final analysis. Slightly more than half of the participants were females (52.46%; n=96) and the rest were male (47.54%; n=87). The highest frequency ac-cording to the device type was FM (50.8%) followed by CC (31.1%) while FM+RME wearer was 18.1%. Male expressed significantly higher (p <0.05) cooperation and tendency levels towards treatment than females. Cooperation level was also significantly associated with the parents’ monitoring and motivation. Conclusion: Males had higher levels of treatment desire and cooperation than females during the treatment of Class III malocclusion. In addition, results emphasized the role of the motivational effect of the parent on the positive coopera-tion of the patients. Zaid Alaa Abdulhussein Alev Aksoy Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry 2022-03-15 2022-03-15 34 1 12 24 10.26477/jbcd.v34i1.3087 The effect of age on the clinicopathological features of oral squamous cell carcinoma Background: Squamous cell carcinoma is a disease of elderly peopleand it is uncommon in people with less than 40 years old; however many literatures revealed that tumor developing in patients younger than forty years appears more aggressive at the time of diagnosis. The purpose of the present study was to focus on the clincopathological features of the oral SCC in different age groups. Material and methods: In this study thirty five cases of paraffin embedded tissue blocks of oral squamous cell carcinoma were studied. The age range was from 16 to 80 years. The clinicopathological data were recorded for evaluating the tumor characters according to age of patients. Results : The age was not significantly correlated to the clinicopathological features that involved the gender of the patients, anatomical site of the tumor, perineural invasion , histological grading and staging . Alaa S Saeed Bashar H Abdullah Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry 2022-03-15 2022-03-15 34 1 25 28 10.26477/jbcd.v34i1.3088 The relationship of implant stability quotient and insertion torque in dental implant stability <p> Background: The insertion torque (IT) values and implant stability quotient (ISQ) values are the measurements most used to assess primary implant stability. This study aimed to assess the relationship between ISQ values and IT. Materials and methods: This study included 24 patients with a mean (SD) age of 47.9 (13.64) years (range 25-75 years). The patients received 42 dental implants (DI), 33 in the mandible and 9 in the maxilla. The DI were installed using the motorized method with 35 Ncm torque, When DI could not be inserted to the requisite depth by the motorized method, a hand ratchet was used and the IT was recorded as ˃ 35 Ncm. Implant stability was measured utilizing Osstell® ISQ. The secondary stability was measured after 16 weeks postoperatively.Results: The DI installed in mandible demonstrated significantly higher primary stability ISQ values than those installed in maxilla (P=0.0101). There was no such significant correlation linked between the secondary stability and the recipient jaw (P=0.2026). A non-significant correlation was found between the primary and secondary implant stability ISQ values and IT (P=0.2785 and 0.4194, respectively). No significant difference was reported regarding the IT relative to the recipient jaw of DI (P=0.1349).Conclusion: This study demonstrated that there was no relationship between the ISQ values and the IT, and that they should be used independently. DI installed in mandible demonstrated significantly higher primary stability ISQ values than those installed in maxilla. Also, there was a non-significant correlation of the secondary stability and IT with the recipient jaw. </p> Ali T Noaman Salwan Y Bede Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry 2022-03-15 2022-03-15 34 1 29 35 10.26477/jbcd.v34i1.3089 Natural preparation of rice husk-derived silica and eggshell-derived calcium carbonate composite as a coating material for dental implant Background: The world is in front of two emerging problems being scarceness of virgin re-sources for bioactive materials and the gathering of waste production. Employment of the surplus waste in the mainstream production can resolve these problems. The current study aimed to prepare and characterize a natural composite CaO-SiO2 based bioactive material derived from naturally sustained raw materials. Then deposit this innovative novel bioactive coating composite materials overlying Yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia substrate. Mate-rials and method; Hen eggshell-derived calcium carbonate and rice husk-derived silica were extracted from natural resources to prepare the composite coating material. The manufac-tured powder was characterized via Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and particle size analyzer. The bioactive composite was deposited through radiofre-quency (Rf) reactive magnetron sputtering overlying disc-shaped samples with a dimension of 10 mm diameter were prepared from partially sintered Yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP). Results: The particle size of the rice husk-derived ranged between (480.4 – 606.1) nm with a mean particle diameter of 541 nm. The eggshell derived calcium carbonate powder presented a particle size between (266.4-336) nm and a mean particle diameter of 299.9 nm. The XRD data revealed the crystalline nature and phase composition of the natural prepared calcium carbonate powder and demonstrate the monocrystalline nature of natural SiO2. FTIR spectrometer showed the emergence of novel spectra separated from the two innovative components. XRF analysis revealed that 99.4% of the rice husk is SiO2 while eggshell-derived powder is mainly composed of calcium oxide. Fe-SEM images of the coated zirconia exhibited average thickness of the natural CaCO3/SiO2 coat layer may reach to12.84 µ. Conclusion: The prepared composite derived from natural resource waste is suitable to be utilized as a coating material for ceramic dental implants with promising biological and mechanical properties. Rehab Aamer Kareem Ghassan Abdul-Hamid Naji Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry 2022-03-15 2022-03-15 34 1 36 43 10.26477/jbcd.v34i1.3090 Effect of Resin Infiltration and Microabrasion on the Microhardness of the Artificial White Spot Lesions (An in Vitro Study) Background: White spot lesion is the first visible sign of dental caries that is characterized by demineralized lesion underneath an intact surface. Several studies demonstrated that they could be treated using noninvasive techniques like the use of fluoride or casein phospho-peptide and amorphous calcium phosphate. Improvement in aesthetic outcomes by covering the demineralized enamel is one of the advantages of the use of resin infiltration and opal-ustre microabrasion, which are two new techniques that had been used for treatment of white spot lesion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of resin infiltration and microabrasion in the microhardness of the artificial white spot lesions at various depths. Material and method: Forty-eight artificially white spot lesions were divided into three groups (n=16) according to the depth of the lesion (shallow enamel, deep enamel, shallow dentine). Then, each of the main groups was divided into two subgroups (n = 8), the first group was treated with resin infiltration, while the second one was treated with Opalustre microabrasion. Assessment of the microhardness was done using Vickers hardness at the baseline, after demineralization (formation of the white spot lesion) and after the treatment with the resin infiltration and the microabrasion. Results: There was a significant difference in the microhardness of all the layers after demineralization. Although the hardness values that found among the icon group in the inner enamel and the outer dentine were higher than that of the opalustre, statistically there was no significant difference between the two mate-rials in all the layers of the white spot lesion. Conclusion: Microhardness values decrease as the depth of the white spot lesion increase. There was an increase in the microhardness values after the treatment with the resin infiltration and the microabrasion. Reem Majeed H.J. Al-Mamoori Aseel Haidar M.J. Al Haidar Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry 2022-03-15 2022-03-15 34 1 44 50 10.26477/jbcd.v34i1.3091 Effect of melatonin supplementation on the gingival health and lipid profiles in obese periodontitis patients Background: Obesity increases the host’s susceptibility by modulating the immune and inflammatory systems in a manner that predisposes to inflammatory tissue destruction and leaves an individual at greater risk of periodontitis. Melatonin is a pineal secretory product involved in numerous actions, such as regulation of internal biological clocks and energy metabolism, and it functions as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. There exists a substantial amount of evidence supporting the beneficial effect of melatonin supplementation on obesity and its complications. Aim of the study: To investigate the effects of systemic melatonin intake on periodontal health status and lipid profiles in obese periodontitis patients. Subjects and methods: Subjects included in the study were distributed into the following groups: Group I, 20 subjects with normal weight and healthy periodontium (controls) not subjected to any treatment. Group II: 30 obese periodontitis patients subjected to scaling and root planing (SRP) only. Group III: 30 obese periodontitis patients subjected to SRP and supplemented with 5mg melatonin tablets for 1 month. Study groups subjected to estimation of plaque index (PLI), bleeding on probing (BOP), cholesterol (chol), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) at baseline and after 4 weeks recall visit. Results: Regarding the clinical parameters, the second visit exhibited decreasing in all parameters in both study groups except BOP score 0 were it increased significantly. Regarding lipid profiles, the second visit showed decreasing in all profiles except HDL where it increased in both study groups with a significant difference. All correlations between lipid profiles in recall visit in both study groups exhibited a positive significant correlation between chol and TG, chol and LDL, LDL and TG in group III. In group II all results exhibited a positive significant correlation, whereas the only strong negative correlation was found between chol and HDL, HDL and LDL. Conclusion: Daily supplementation with 5mg melatonin tab significantly improved periodontal health and reduced chol, TG, LDL with increasing HDL. Hussam Sami Ismail Maha Sh. Mahmood Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry 2022-03-15 2022-03-15 34 1 51 59 10.26477/jbcd.v34i1.3092 In vitro cytotoxic effect of annona squamosa pulp ex-tract as a mouthwash for children on human normal cell line Background: Fruits and their by-products are the primary sources of bioactive chemicals in plants. Because of its phytochemical richness, Annona squamosa fruits have gained the alertness of people willing in health-promoting diets. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the cytocompatibility effect of ethanolic crude extract of Annona squamosa pulp against a human normal cell line as a mouthwash for children. Material and method: The ethanolic extract of Annona squamosa pulp was extracted using the ultrasonic method and then lyophilized to make it powder. The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) test was performed to investigate the cytotoxic activity of the pulp extract on a human normal cell line derived from human dermal fibroblast, neonatal (HDFn). Plates were then incubated with 5% CO2 at 37°C For the following concentrations (400, 200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 g/ml). Each concentration, as well as the positive control chlorhexidine, and the negative control cells without tested material, were tested in triplicate. Results: No significant difference was found between the cytotoxicity of the ethanol crude extract of Annona squamosa and a chlorhexidine (P = >0.05) against human dermal fibroblast of neonate cells, with IC50 (50% growth inhibition of cells) values of 235.4 μg/mL while chlorhexidine had an IC50 of 97.8 μg/mL. Conclusion: Annona squamosa extract is more safe and has less cytotoxicity than chlorhexidine. So, to overcome the problems of chlorhexidine, herbal mouthwash formulations could be utilized as an al-ternative mouthwash. Sumaia Hussein Ali Zainab Juma Jafar Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry 2022-03-15 2022-03-15 34 1 60 66 10.26477/jbcd.v34i1.3093