Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry <p><strong>Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD)</strong> is the official publication of the College of Dentistry/ University of Baghdad. It is a peer-reviewed, Open Access scientific journal that is published quarterly. It publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering all areas of dentistry, including periodontics, orthodontics, conservative and aesthetic dentistry, preventive and pediatric dentistry, prosthodontics, oral medicine and pathology, oral and maxillofacial surgery, dental biomaterials, as well as clinically relevant&nbsp;oral biology. The journal’s editorial board represents an international composition of eminent researchers in dentistry from across the globe. The Journal aims to influence the dental practice at clinician, research and industry levels on an international basis.</p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/nasseer/cover_en_US4.png"></a>&nbsp;</p> <h2><strong class="strongred">Publisher:</strong></h2> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">College of Dentistry/ University of Baghdad</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h2><strong class="strongred">Sponsers:</strong></h2> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University of Baghdad</a></p> en-US <p>Licenses and Copyright</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The following policy applies in The Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD):</p> <p>&nbsp;<br># JBCD applies the&nbsp;Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license&nbsp;to articles and other works we publish. If you submit your paper for publication by JBCD, you agree to have the CC BY license applied to your work. Under this Open Access license, you as the author agree that anyone can reuse your article in whole or part for any purpose, for free, even for commercial purposes. Anyone may copy, distribute, or reuse the content&nbsp;as long as the author and original source are properly cited. This facilitates freedom in re-use and also ensures that JBCD content can be mined without barriers for the needs of research.</p> <p># If your manuscript contains content such as photos, images, figures, tables, audio files, videos, etc., that you or your co-authors do not own, we will require you to provide us with proof that the owner of that content (a) has given you written permission to use it, and (b) has approved of the CC BY license being applied to their content. We provide a form you can use to ask for and obtain permission from the owner.&nbsp; If you do not have owner permission, we will ask you to remove that content and/or replace it with other content that you own or have such permission to use.Don't assume that you can use any content you find on the Internet, or that the content is fair game just because it isn't clear who the owner is or what license applies. It's up to you to ascertain what rights you have—if any—to use that content.</p> <p># Many authors assume that if they previously published a paper through another publisher, they own the rights to that content and they can freely use that content in their paper, but that’s not necessarily the case – it depends on the license that covers the other paper. Some publishers allow free and unrestricted re-use of article content they own, such as under the CC BY license. Other publishers use licenses that allow re-use only if the same license is applied by the person or publisher re-using the content. If the paper was published under a CC BY license or another license that allows free and unrestricted use, you may use the content in your JBCD paper provided that you give proper attribution, as explained above.If the content was published under a more restrictive license, you must ascertain what rights you have under that license. At a minimum, review the license to make sure you can use the content. Contact that JBCD if you have any questions about the license. If the license does not permit you to use the content in a paper that will be covered by an unrestricted license, you must obtain written permission from the publisher to use the content in your JBCD paper.&nbsp;Please do not include any content in your JBCD paper which you do not have rights to use, and always&nbsp;give proper attribution.</p> <p># If any relevant accompanying data is submitted to repositories with stated licensing policies, the policies should not be more restrictive than CC BY.</p> <p># JBCD reserves the right to remove any photos, captures, images, figures, tables, illustrations, audio and video files, and the like, from any paper, whether before or after publication, if we have reason to believe that the content was included in your paper without permission from the owner of the content.</p> (journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry) (Prof. Dr. Ali I Ibrahim) Fri, 11 Jun 2021 16:44:47 +0000 OJS 60 The effect of composite bonding spot size and location on the performance of poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) retainer wires <p>Background: Poly-ether-ether-ketone(PEEK) has been introduced to many dental fields. Recently it was tested as a retainer wire‎ following orthodontic treatment. This study aimed to investigate the effect of changing the bonding spot size and location on the performance of PEEK retainer wires. Methods: A biomechanical study involving four three-dimensional finite element models was performed. The basic model was with a 0.8 mm cylindrical cross-section PEEK wire, bonded at the center of the lingual surface of the mandibular incisors with 4 mm in diameter composite spots. Two other models were designed with 3 mm and 5 mm composite sizes. The last model was created with the composite bonding spot of the canine away from the center of the crown, closer to the lateral incisor. The linear displacement of the teeth, strains of the periodontal ligament, and stresses in PEEK wire and composite were evaluated. The data was numerically produced with color coded display by the software. Selected values were tabulated and compared among models. Results: The amount of linear displacement and strain was very low. Stresses in the wire and composite were affected by the size and position of the composite bonding spot. The safe limits were identified at 235 MPa for PEEK and 100 MPa for composite. The basic model had a von Mises stress in the PEEK wire of 122.09 MPa, and a maximum principal stress in the composite of 99.779 MPa. Both stresses were within the safe limits, which means a lower risk of failure in PEEK and composite. All other models had stresses that exceeded the safe limit of the composite. The 3 mm composite model was the only one that developed stresses in the wire more than the safe limits of PEEK. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, bonding PEEK wires with 4 mm bonding spots to the clinical crown center provided the best mechanical performance of the wires and spots; otherwise, the mechanical properties of the wire and composite would be affected and, therefore, might affect the retention process. Keywords: Retention, PEEK, Finite element analysis</p> Ammar S Kadhum, Akram F Alhuwaizi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 11 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Traumatic dental injuries in relation to quality of life among school children in Baghdad /Iraq <p>Background: One of the significant public health problems is the traumatic dental injury to the anterior teeth, it has a great impact on children’s daily. Physical and psychological disturbance, pain and other negative impacts, such as tendency to avoid laughing or smiling may be associated with traumatic dental injuries, that may affect the social relationships. To determine the occurrence of traumatic dental injuries in relation to quality of life, this study was established among children of primary schools. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among private (574) and governmental (1026) primary school children in Baghdad city. Dental trauma was assessed according to Ellis and Davey classification in1970 and quality of life concerning a child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ) was used which consisted according to Jokovic et 2006. Statistical analysis was done using IBMSPASS version (21). Results: Among the permanent anterior dentitions; the most widespread injured teeth were the maxillary central incisors. The boys were more affected with traumatic teeth than girls, as well as a higher percentage noticed in governmental schools than in private schools. Among all quality of life questionnaire, a higher percentage were observed in boys rather than in girls, as well as in governmental schools a higher percentage were listed more than in private schools, all differences were statistically highly significant. Conclusion: A higher association was noticed between traumatic anterior teeth and quality of life for children. Keywords Traumatic dental injuries, quality of life and oral condition.</p> Shahad Jamal , Nada J MH Radhi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 11 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Management of trauma to the anterior segment of the maxilla: alveolar fracture and primary incisors crown and root fracture <p>Background: An injury to both the primary and permanent teeth and the supporting structures is one of the most common dental problems seen in children. Splinting is usually difficult or impossible to perform in the primary dentition (due to diminutive room size and lack of patient cooperation). Healing must, therefore, occur despite mobility at the fracture line, usually resulting in interposition of connective tissue. In some instances, infection will occur in the coronal pulp. The present study reported a case of trauma to the anterior primary teeth and alveolar bone in a four year old child. The trauma has caused fracture to the crowns and roots of the primary anterior teeth. The following case was managed in a procedure that may provide primary teeth subjected to trauma a better chance than extraction with a better prognosis. Case presentation: a 4 and a half year old child was subjected to trauma in anterior segment of maxilla. Suturing of the torn soft tissue was the first step followed by pulpotomy for the left primary lateral incisor. Fixation of the right primary central and lateral incisors was done by acid etch wire fixation. Both clinical and radiographic follow up was carried out for 6.4 years. Results: healing of the soft tissue was observed after one week and completed after two months. Fixation of the teeth continued for ten months. The fracture lines in the roots remained in position. Clinically there was no sign of any pulpal inflammation or necrosis. Radiographically, no signs of infection to the surrounding tissues could be seen, no resorption in the alveolar bone, external or internal resorption of the root did not happen also. After ten months fixation ended and the wire was removed. At that time there was normal resorption of the roots of the primary incisors in relation with the normal development of the permanent incisors. After 3 years both permanent central incisors erupted in their normal position. After 6.4 years all four permanent incisors erupted into occlusion in their normal position. Conclusion: primary teeth with root fractures and severely mobile coronal fragments can be treated by a conservative approach. The severity of the sequels is directly related to the degree of permanent tooth formation (child’s age), type of dental trauma and extent of the impact.&nbsp;</p> Muna S Khalaf , Bayan S Khalaf , Shorouq M Abass ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 11 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The influence of different root canal irrigants on the push-out bond strength of AH plus and Bioceramic sealers <p>Background: The bond strength of endodontic sealers with dentin is a very important property for maintaining the integrity and seal of the root canal filling. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of various irrigants (QMix, 17% EDTA and 2.5% NaOCl) on the push-out bond strength of AH plus and Bioceramic sealers. Materials and methods: Forty eight freshly extracted maxillary first molars human teeth with striaght palatal root were used in the study. The collected samples were randomly divided into three groups of equal sample size (n=16), according to the final irrigation regimen as follows: Group (1): QMix 2 in 1, Group (2): 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Group (3): 2.5% sodium hypochloride. All samples were instrumented using Edge file X7 rotary instrument reaching file size 40/.04 as the final master apical file. After that each group was randomly divided into two subgroups (n=8) according to the type of sealer used: AH Plus and Total Fill BC Sealer. Obturation was conducted using single cone technique with gutta percha (GP) to all experimental roots. Two-millimeter thick slices were obtained from the middle section of the root. Bond strength of sealers was measured via a universal testing machine by using stainless steel plunger. Then, the data were statistically evaluated using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc test (Bonferroni’s test). Results: The push-out bond strength was significantly increased by the “irrigant” factor (P≤0.05) and by “sealer/irrigation solution” interaction (P≤0.05). Final rinse with QMix solution with BC sealer showed the highest mean value of bond strength (5.976 MPa), with a significant difference with other groups (P≤0.05), while NaOCl with AH Plus sealer showed the lowest mean value of bond strength (3.811 MPa). Conclusion: Final irrigation of the root canals with different irrigants improved the endodontic sealer's bond strength, and QMix had a positive influence on the adhesion of BC sealer.</p> Alaa M Naeem , Iman M Al-Zaka ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 11 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000