Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry <p><strong><span class="s2"><span class="bumpedFont15">Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD)</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15"> </span></span></strong><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">is the official publication of the College of Dentistry</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">,</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15"> University of Baghdad. It is a peer-reviewed, </span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">o</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">pen</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">-a</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">ccess scientific journal that is published quarterly. It publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering all areas of dentistry, including periodontics, orthodontics, </span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">restorative</span></span> <span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">and aesthetic dentistry, preventive and pediatric dentistry, prosthodontics, oral medicine and pathology, oral and maxillofacial surgery, dental biomaterials, as well as clinically relevant oral biology. The journal's editorial board represents an international composition of eminent researchers in dentistry from across the globe. The </span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">j</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">ournal aims to influence the dental practice at clinic</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">al</span></span><span class="s3"><span class="bumpedFont15">, research and industry levels on an international basis.</span></span></p> en-US <p>Licenses and Copyright</p> <p> </p> <p>The following policy applies in The Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD):</p> <p> <br /># JBCD applies the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license to articles and other works we publish. If you submit your paper for publication by JBCD, you agree to have the CC BY license applied to your work. Under this Open Access license, you as the author agree that anyone can reuse your article in whole or part for any purpose, for free, even for commercial purposes. Anyone may copy, distribute, or reuse the content as long as the author and original source are properly cited. This facilitates freedom in re-use and also ensures that JBCD content can be mined without barriers for the needs of research.</p> <p># If your manuscript contains content such as photos, images, figures, tables, audio files, videos, etc., that you or your co-authors do not own, we will require you to provide us with proof that the owner of that content (a) has given you written permission to use it, and (b) has approved of the CC BY license being applied to their content. We provide a form you can use to ask for and obtain permission from the owner. If you do not have owner permission, we will ask you to remove that content and/or replace it with other content that you own or have such permission to use.Don't assume that you can use any content you find on the Internet, or that the content is fair game just because it isn't clear who the owner is or what license applies.</p> <p># Many authors assume that if they previously published a paper through another publisher, they own the rights to that content and they can freely use that content in their paper, but that’s not necessarily the case, it depends on the license that covers the other paper. Some publishers allow free and unrestricted re-use of article content they own, such as under the CC BY license. Other publishers use licenses that allow re-use only if the same license is applied by the person or publisher re-using the content. If the paper was published under a CC BY license or another license that allows free and unrestricted use, you may use the content in your JBCD paper provided that you give proper attribution, as explained above.If the content was published under a more restrictive license, you must ascertain what rights you have under that license. At a minimum, review the license to make sure you can use the content. Contact that JBCD if you have any questions about the license. If the license does not permit you to use the content in a paper that will be covered by an unrestricted license, you must obtain written permission from the publisher to use the content in your JBCD paper. Please do not include any content in your JBCD paper which you do not have rights to use, and always give proper attribution.</p> <p># If any relevant accompanying data is submitted to repositories with stated licensing policies, the policies should not be more restrictive than CC BY.</p> <p># JBCD reserves the right to remove any photos, captures, images, figures, tables, illustrations, audio and video files, and the like, from any paper, whether before or after publication, if we have reason to believe that the content was included in your paper without permission from the owner of the content.</p> [email protected] (journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry) [email protected] (Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry) Fri, 15 Sep 2023 10:05:15 +0000 OJS 60 Investigating the impact of non-nutritive sweeteners on the antifungal potential of alcoholic and aqueous Eucalyptus extracts against salivary candida albicans (An in-vitro study) <p>Background: Eucalyptus extracts and derivatives are natural substances with potent antimicrobial properties. This study investigated the in- vitro effects of non-nutritive sweeteners on the antifungal activity of alcoholic and aqueous Eucalyptus extracts against Candida albicans, a common oral pathogen. Materials and Method: Ten isolates of Candida albicans were isolated from dental students’ salivary samples. The alcoholic and aqueous extracts were prepared from fresh Eucalyptus leaves using maceration. The sensitivity of Candida albicans isolates to various concentrations of Eucalyptus extracts ranging from 50 to 250 (mg/mL) was evaluated via agar well diffusion method, while the agar streaking method was used to assess the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). In addition, the effect of non-nutritive sweeteners on the MFC of the extracts was investigated. Results: The Eucalyptus extract-sensitive Candida albicans isolates showed an increase in inhibitory zone width with increasing extract concentration. Regarding their antifungal effectiveness, clear disparities were observed among extract concentrations. Against Candida albicans, the MFC for Eucalyptus alcoholic extract was 75 mg/mL, but the MFC for Eucalyptus aqueous extract was 200 mg/mL. Notably, 15% stevia and 5% sucralose did not affect the antifungal effects of the Eucalyptus alcoholic extract. The antifungal effectiveness of the aqueous Eucalyptus extract against Candida albicans was unaffected by stevia and sucralose concentrations of up to 1%. Conclusion: Significant antimicrobial action against Candida albicans is shown in Eucalyptus extracts. Results indicated that stevia and sucralose at specific quantities could be utilized as sweeteners for Eucalyptus extracts in an efficient manner without impairing the extracts’ antifungal activity.</p> Dalya M. AL-Qaralusi , Abbas S Al-Mizraqchi Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry Fri, 15 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluating the effect of natural, industrial juices and beverage on orthodontic bonding composite (in-vitro study) <p>Background: Dental erosion is a common oral condition which results due to consumption of high caloric and low pH acidic food such as carbonated drinks and fruit juices. It is expected that these food types can cause irreversible damage to dental hard tissues and early deterioration of the dental restorations. So, this study aimed to evaluate and compare the erosive potential effects of orange fruit juice and Miranda orange drink on the microhardness of an orthodontic composite material. Materials and methods: Thirty discs with a thickness of 2 mm and a diameter of 10 mm were prepared from orthodontic bonding composite. The prepared discs were equally divided into three groups (n=10). Microhardness analysis was carried out both prior to and subsequent to immersion cycles. The microhardness of the specimens underwent evaluation subsequent to immersion in the beverages for durations of 6 hours (equivalent to one day) and 42 hours (equivalent to seven days). Microhardness measurements at baseline, one day, and one week were performed utilizing the Vickers microhardness testing. Statistical analyses were carried out using repeated measure one way ANOVA test and Bonferroni post-hoc test with a level of significant <em>p</em>&lt; 0.05. Results: The micro hardness of composite exposed to the selected soft drinks was significantly decreased (<em>p</em>&lt; 0.05). Conclusions: Natural, industrial orange juices and Miranda can affect the micro hardness of composite. The beverage effect on the orthodontic composite based on the type of juice and the exposure time to these beverages.</p> Rusal S Ahmed, Alan I Saleem Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry Fri, 15 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of alpha amylase and peroxidase in saliva of pregnant women <p>Background: Pregnancy is a natural physiological state that involves several biochemical modifications. Saliva is consisted of many types of proteins such as salivary alpha amylase and salivary peroxidase that might be affected by pregnancy. The former enzyme is considered one of the most prevalent proteins that is released by highly differentiated epithelial acinar cells and has been shown to have enzymatic activities while the latter has been approved that it has a significant role in oral health. The purpose of this study was to the evaluate the salivary levels of alpha-amylase and peroxidase in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Materials and Methods: Sixty pregnant women were grouped according to the pregnancy trimesters. The first group involved 20 women in the 1<sup>st</sup> trimester, 2<sup>nd</sup> group represented by 20 women in the 2<sup>nd</sup> trimester while the 3<sup>rd</sup> group involved the rest who were in the 3<sup>rd</sup> trimester. In addition to 20 married non pregnant women as a control group. Salivary samples were collected from each group to compare the salivary level of alpha-amylase and peroxidase using sandwich enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay. Results: 2<sup>nd</sup> and 3<sup>rd</sup> groups illustrated high significant level of theses enzymes in comparison with the control group. However, the first group demonstrated non-significant differences in the level of tested enzymes when compared to that of the control group. Conclusion: It was concluded that the salivary alpha amylase and salivary peroxidase have higher levels in pregnant women with dramatic increase for those in the third trimester.</p> Al-zahraa J Jassim, Zainab A Al Dhaher, Faten M Allyan Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry Fri, 15 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Osseointegration effects of whey protein (histological and histomorphological observations): An experimental study on rabbits <p>Background<strong>: </strong>Whey protein is the green-yellow colored, liquid portion of the milk, and it is also called the cheese serum, it is obtained after the separation of curd, during the coagulation of the milk. It contains a considerable amount of α-helix pattern with an evenly distributed hydrophobic and hydrophilic as well as basic and acidic amino acids along with their polypeptide chain. The major whey protein constituents include β-lactoglobulin (β-LG),α-lactalbumin (α-LA), immunoglobulins (IG), bovine serum albumin (BSA), bovine lactoperoxidase (LP), bovine lactoferrin (BLF) and minor amounts of a glycol macro peptide (GMP). Osseointegration can be defined as a process that is immune driven which leads to the formation of the new bone surrounding the surface of the implant rather than a pure response of the bone. Titanium can activate a balance recognized to be tolerogenic with a peri-implant tissue leading to a "foreign body equilibrium (FBE)" response. Materials and methods: Twelve adult male white New Zealand healthy rabbits were used in this study, the animals were divided into two groups according to the time of scarification as follows; 2 and 6 weeks after the implantation (6 rabbits will be sacrificed for each group). Results: Statistical analysis showed that there is a highly significant difference in all parameters between the experimental group and control group at 2 weeks and 6 weeks periods. Histological results at 2 weeks period showed thread formation in whey protein and control group, distribution of osteocyte cells and osteoblast was higher in whey protein, and the bone trabecular area was also larger in whey protein groups but at 6 weeks showed mature bone in whey protein groups while in control group still woven bone. Conclusions: Whey protein is an effective in osseointegration because it enhances bone formation.</p> Nawar B Kamil, Nada M H AL-Ghaban , Amaar Aamery Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry Fri, 15 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 FEM: Mono-implant cement retained crown with two different adhesive materials <p>Background: The finite element method (FEM) is expected to be one of the most effective computational tools for measuring the stress on implant-supported restorations. This study was designed using the 3D-FEM to evaluate the effect of two adhesive luting types of cement on the occlusal stress and deformation of a hybrid crown cemented to a mono-implant. Materials and Method: The mono-screw STL file was imported into the CAD/CAM system library from a database supported by De-Tech Implant Technology. This was to assist in the accurate reproduction of details and design of a simulated implant abutment. Virtually, a digital crown was designed to be cemented on an abutment screw. A minimum occlusal thickness of 1mm and marginal fitting of 1.2mm was intended. An 80µm cement interface thickness for this study’s purposes was applied using U-Cem Premium and 3M RelyXTm adhesives. The FEA software meshed into tetrahedral elements. Two three-dimensional finite element models were simulated under different loads of 200N, 400N, 600N, 800N, 1000N, 1200N, and 1400N. Results: The results showed that the hybrid ceramic crown attached to a mono-implant with each adhesive cement exhibited comparable stress and strain. However, the amount of distortion was less when RelyX cement was used. Conclusion: Overall, it was advisable to use 3M RelyXTm adhesive cement up to 1400N load.</p> Shahad M Shakir, Saja A Muhsin, Raad S Al Marza Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry Fri, 15 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of feeding pattern on the stage of primary dentition eruption in relation to growth parameters <p>Background: Feeding is a complicated process that involves the coordination of cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal (GI), and oropharyngeal mechanisms, with support from the musculoskeletal and craniofacial systems. The practice of feeding could be correlated with eruption stage and nutritional status in infants. Aim of the study: This study aimed to assess the relation of feeding patterns to a selected oral variable (stage of the eruption of primary teeth) and growth parameters among clinically healthy infants. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study on a sample of (300) infants aged between 6 and 18 months was performed in Karbala City, Iraq. The feeding pattern was investigated using an information sheet answered by parents. The stage of dental emergence was evaluated through intraoral examination. Growth parameters (height, weight, head circumference) were analyzed. Results: Bottle-fed infants had higher total tooth eruption incidence and nutritional status than the other feeding groups, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Bottle-fed infants had the highest mean of erupted primary teeth and nutritional status.</p> Dhay HM Hassan, Shahbaa M Al-joranii, Baydaa A Yas, Samaneh Razeghi Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry Fri, 15 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Reliability of the multipeg™ transducer in measuring dental implant stability by using a resonance frequency analysis device (Osstell®): An observational clinical study <p>Background: Measuring implant stability is an important issue in predicting treatment success. Dental implant stability is usually measured through resonance frequency analysis (RFA). Osstell® RFA devices can be used with transducers (Smartpeg™) that correspond to the implants used as well as with transducers designed for application with Penguin® RFA devices (Multipeg™). Aims: This study aims to assess the reliability of a MultiPeg™ transducer with an Osstell® device in measuring dental implant stability. Materials and Methods: Sixteen healthy participants who required dental implant treatment were enrolled in this study. Implant stability was measured by using an Osstell® device with two transducers, namely, Smartpeg™ and Multipeg™. Insertion torque was also measured and recorded as &gt;50 and ≤50 N·cm. Unpaired t-test and Mann–Whitney U test were conducted to assess the relationships of the implant stability values obtained by the two transducers with insertion torque, whereas Pearson and Spearman's correlations were utilized to investigate correlations between the two transducers. Interclass correlation coefficients were applied to assess the reliability between the two transducers. Results: Implant stability measurements (primary and secondary) showed strong positive correlations between Smartpeg™ and Multipeg™. The reliability values between both transducers in primary and secondary implant stability measurements were 0.922 and 0.981, respectively. The use of both transducers revealed higher implant stability measurements for implants inserted with insertion torque &gt; 50 N·cm than those inserted with insertion torque ≤ 50 N·cm. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the Multipeg™ transducer is reliable in measuring the stability of dental implants using an Osstell® device. </p> Alamin Y Dhahi, Salwan Y Bede, Haig Khachadourian Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry Fri, 15 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The influence of lemongrass essential oil addition into heat cured acrylic resin against Candida albicans adhesion <p>Background: For decades, the use of naturally accessible materials in treating human disease has been widespread. The goal of this study was to determine the anti-fungal effectiveness /of the lemongrass essential oil (LGEO) versus Candida albicans (C. albicans) adhesion to polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) materials. Material and methods: LGEO's anti-fungal activity was tested against C. albicans adhesion using the following concentration of LGEO in PMMA monomer (2.5 vol. %, 5 vol. % LGEO) selected from the pilot study as the best two effective concentrations. A total of 40 specimens were fabricated for the candida adherence test and were subdivided into four equal groups: negative control 0 vol. % addition, experimental with 2.5 vol. % and 5 vol. % of LGEO addition and positive control with 1.4 wt. % nystatin addition. The sterile PMMA specimens were incubated at room temperature for 1 hr in sterile tubes with a sabouraud dextrose broth (SDA) in which a small amount of the yeast was isolated and suspended; under the inverted light microscope, the examination was done. The data were evaluated using a one-way ANOVA test, which showed a significant result at p&lt; 0.05. Results: The findings of the C. albicans adherence test exposed a considerable reduction in the number of C. albicans cells adhering to PMMA after adding 2.5 vol. % and 5 vol. % LGEO compared to specimens from the negative control and positive control groups at p&lt; 0.05. Conclusion: Adding LGEO into a heat-cure acrylic material can result in a denture base material with anti-fungal properties versus C. albicans microorganisms. The experimental group 5 vol. % LGEO additive showed the best anti-fungal activity</p> Seineen S Al-Shammari, Faiza M Abdul-Ameer, Latifa R Bairam, Zeina Al-Salihi Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry Fri, 15 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000