Main Article Content
Background: Non-nutritive sucking habit (NNSH) is the main environmental causative factor that disturbs normal orofacial development. In spite of the harmful effect of pacifier as a NNSH, mothers aware from the other types of NNSH like thumb sucking far more than pacifier use. Open bite is one of the most challenging malocclusions in orthodontics due to the high prevalence of relapse after treatment, so preventing the causative factor of its occurrence is essential at early age of child life. This study aims to assess the impact of two non-nutritive patterns on the development of anterior open bite in primary dentition and to compare which of these habits mostly affect open bite development. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 313 Iraqi children (135 boys, 178 girls), aged 3-5 years, enrolled at two public kindergartens in Baghdad city, the Capital of Iraq. A pre-tested questionnaire with clinical examination were used to obtain data regarding thumb sucking, pacifier and the presence of open bite. Excel sheets were used for data processing, and Chi square test was used in data analysis. Results: There was a significant association between NNSH and the development of open bite (p value = 0.01). No gender differences in open bite prevalence were observed. The prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits and open bite was 63.11% and 52.9% respectively with no gender difference. There was no significant differences between the effect of pacifier and thumb sucking habits on the development of an anterior open bite. Conclusion: Both pacifier and thumb sucking at preschool age are significant causative factors that lead to development of open bite in primary dentition. Encouraging mothers to ban and discontinue pacifier and thumb sucking habits as early as possible in the child's life is a crucial factor to prevent open bite development. On the other hand if general health of the child indicates the use of pacifier, mothers should use an orthodontic pacifier and for short time
Licenses and Copyright
The following policy applies in The Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD):
# JBCD applies the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license to articles and other works we publish. If you submit your paper for publication by JBCD, you agree to have the CC BY license applied to your work. Under this Open Access license, you as the author agree that anyone can reuse your article in whole or part for any purpose, for free, even for commercial purposes. Anyone may copy, distribute, or reuse the content as long as the author and original source are properly cited. This facilitates freedom in re-use and also ensures that JBCD content can be mined without barriers for the needs of research.
# If your manuscript contains content such as photos, images, figures, tables, audio files, videos, etc., that you or your co-authors do not own, we will require you to provide us with proof that the owner of that content (a) has given you written permission to use it, and (b) has approved of the CC BY license being applied to their content. We provide a form you can use to ask for and obtain permission from the owner. If you do not have owner permission, we will ask you to remove that content and/or replace it with other content that you own or have such permission to use.Don't assume that you can use any content you find on the Internet, or that the content is fair game just because it isn't clear who the owner is or what license applies. It's up to you to ascertain what rights you have—if any—to use that content.
# Many authors assume that if they previously published a paper through another publisher, they own the rights to that content and they can freely use that content in their paper, but that’s not necessarily the case – it depends on the license that covers the other paper. Some publishers allow free and unrestricted re-use of article content they own, such as under the CC BY license. Other publishers use licenses that allow re-use only if the same license is applied by the person or publisher re-using the content. If the paper was published under a CC BY license or another license that allows free and unrestricted use, you may use the content in your JBCD paper provided that you give proper attribution, as explained above.If the content was published under a more restrictive license, you must ascertain what rights you have under that license. At a minimum, review the license to make sure you can use the content. Contact that JBCD if you have any questions about the license. If the license does not permit you to use the content in a paper that will be covered by an unrestricted license, you must obtain written permission from the publisher to use the content in your JBCD paper. Please do not include any content in your JBCD paper which you do not have rights to use, and always give proper attribution.
# If any relevant accompanying data is submitted to repositories with stated licensing policies, the policies should not be more restrictive than CC BY.
# JBCD reserves the right to remove any photos, captures, images, figures, tables, illustrations, audio and video files, and the like, from any paper, whether before or after publication, if we have reason to believe that the content was included in your paper without permission from the owner of the content.