Molecular Detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis in COVID-19 Patients

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Haifa H Kareem
Batool H Al-Ghurabi
Cinaria Albadri


Background:SARS-CoV-2 infection has caused a global pandemic that continues to negatively impact human health. A large group of microbial domains including bacteria co-evolved and interacted in complex molecular pathogenesis along with SARS-CoV-2. Evidence suggests that periodontal disease bacteria are involved in COVID-19, and are associated with chronic inflammatory systemic diseases. This study was performed to investigate the association between bacterial loads of Porphyromonas gingivalis and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Fifty patients with confirmed COVID-19 by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, their age ranges between 20-76 years, and 35 healthy volunteers (matched accordingly with age and sex to the patients) participated in this case control study. Oral hygiene status was determined by the simplified oral hygiene index. Blood and saliva samples were obtained from patients and controls, Porphyromonas gingivalis quantification from extracted DNA of blood and saliva samples performed by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction. The present result revealed that the quantity of salivary Porphyromonas gingivalis was significantly higher (p=0.003) in the patients’ group than in the controls group, while there was no significant difference in the number of bacteria in the blood samples between the two groups. Moreover, the number of bacteria in severe cases was higher than that in moderate and mild with no significant differences, and there was a significant increase in the number of bacteria among patients with poor oral hygiene compared to patients with good oral hygiene. This study demonstrated that the high level of salivary Porphyromonas gingivalis in patients increases in number with disease severity, which may indicate that bacterial infections contribute to the spread of the disease.


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Kareem HH, Al-Ghurabi BH, Albadri C. Molecular Detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis in COVID-19 Patients. J Bagh Coll Dent [Internet]. 2022 Jun. 15 [cited 2023 Sep. 23];34(2):52-61. Available from:
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