Surface Characterization of PEKK Modified by stron-tium –hydroxyapatite coating as implant material Via the magnetron sputtering Deposition technique

Main Article Content

Ghasak H Jani
Abdalbseet A Fatalla


Background: The best material for dental implants is polyetherketoneketone (PEKK). However, this substance is neither osteoinductive nor osteoconductive, preventing direct bone apposition. Modifying the PEKK with bioactive elements like strontium hydroxyapatite is one method to overcome this (Sr-HA). Due to the technique's capacity to provide better control over the coating's properties, RF magnetron sputtering has been found to be a particularly useful technique for deposition.

Materials and methods : With specific sputtering conditions, the RF magnetron technique was employed to provide a homogeneous and thin coating on Polyetherketoneketone substrates.. the coatings were characterized by Contact angle, adhesion test, X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope and Elemental Analysis with Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX)

Results : indicated that strontium hydroxyapatite had successfully deposited onto the surface with significant improvement in the wettability value to provide a suitable environment for cell attachment, spreading, proliferation, and differentiation

Conclusion: Coating PEKK with RF magnetron sputtering can provide homogeneous surfaces laying the groundwork for improving PEKK's potential bioactivity, such as surface wettability. Wetting qualities are critical in implantable materials and are used to predict future osseointegration success.

Article Details

How to Cite
Jani GH, Fatalla AA. Surface Characterization of PEKK Modified by stron-tium –hydroxyapatite coating as implant material Via the magnetron sputtering Deposition technique. J Bagh Coll Dent [Internet]. 2022 Jun. 15 [cited 2022 Jun. 28];34(2):25-36. Available from:
Research Articles


Gowd MS, Shankar T, Ranjan R and Singh A. Prosthetic consideration in implant-supported prosthesis: A review of literature. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2017;7:S1.

Jokstad A, Braegger U, Brunski JB, Carr AB, Naert I and Wennerberg A. Quality of dental implants. Int. Dent. J. 2003;53:409-443.

Jung U-W, Hwang J-W, Choi D-Y, Hu K-S, Kwon M-K, Choi S-H and Kim H-J. Surface characteristics of a novel hydroxyapatite-coated dental implant. J. Periodontal Implant Sci 2012;42:59-63.

Dominici F. Study and characterization of thermo-mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced and nano-structured composites based on engineering and high performance polymeric matrices for high temperature applications. 2017.

Mills N, Jenkins M and Kukureka S. Plastics: microstructure and engineering applications: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2020.

Kemmish DJ. Practical guide to high performance engineering plastics: Smithers Rapra; 2011.

Alqurashi H, Khurshid Z, Syed AUY, Habib SR, Rokaya D and Zafar MS. Polyetherketoneketone (PEKK): An emerging biomaterial for oral implants and dental prostheses. J. Adv. Res. 2021;28:87-95.

Ni G, Lu W, Chiu K, Li Z, Fong D and Luk K. Strontium‐containing hydroxyapatite (Sr‐HA) bioactive cement for primary hip replacement: An in vivo study. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B: Applied Biomaterials: An Official Journal of The Society for Biomaterials, The Japanese Society for Biomaterials, and The Australian Society for Biomaterials and the Korean Society for Biomaterials. 2006;77:409-415.

Boyd AR, Rutledge L, Randolph L, Mutreja I and Meenan BJ. The deposition of strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings. J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Med.. 2015;26:65.

Kelly P and Bradley J. Pulsed magnetron sputtering-process overview and applications. J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.. 2009;11:1101-1107.

Mezger P and Creugers N. Titanium nitride coatings in clinical dentistry. J. Dent. 1992;20:342-344.

Boonyawan D, Waruriya P and Suttiat K. Characterization of titanium nitride–hydroxyapatite on PEEK for dental implants by co-axis target magnetron sputtering. Surf. Coat. Technol. 2016;306:164-170.

Denry I, Holloway J and Gupta P. Effect of crystallization heat treatment on the microstructure of niobium‐doped fluorapatite glass‐ceramics. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B: Applied Biomaterials. 2012;100:1198-1205.

Zhong W, Huang Y, Gan D, Xu J, Li H, Wang G, Meng S and Chen X. Wetting behavior of water on silicon carbide polar surfaces. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2016;18:28033-28039.

Gonzalez P, Serra J, Liste S, Chiussi S, Leon B, Perez-Amor M, Martınez-Fernández J, de Arellano-Lopez A and Varela-Feria F. New biomorphic SiC ceramics coated with bioactive glass for biomedical applications. Biomat. 2003;24:4827-4832.

Zhang P, Zhang Z and Li W. Antibacterial coating incorporating silver nanoparticles by microarc oxidation and ion implantation. J. Nanomater. 2013;2013.

Han X-B, Kannari K and Ye S. In situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy in Li–O2 battery research. Curr. Opin. Electrochem. 2019;17:174-183.

Garcia-Leiner M, Dennies DP and Yardimci A. High Performance Polymers in Additive Manufacturing Processes: Understanding Process, Structure and Property. Microsc. Microanal.2015;21:127-128.

Wang H, Xu M, Zhang W, Kwok DT, Jiang J, Wu Z and Chu PK. Mechanical and biological characteristics of diamond-like carbon coated poly aryl-ether-ether-ketone. Biomat. 2010;31:8181-8187.

Briem D, Strametz S, Schröoder K, Meenen N, Lehmann W, Linhart W, Ohl A and Rueger J. Response of primary fibroblasts and osteoblasts to plasma treated polyetheretherketone (PEEK) surfaces. J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Med. 2005;16:671-677.

Noiset O, Schneider Y-J and Marchand-Brynaert J. Fibronectin adsorption or/and covalent grafting on chemically modified PEEK film surfaces. J. Biomat. Sci., Polymer Edition. 1999;10:657-677.

Bodhak S, Bose S and Bandyopadhyay A. Role of surface charge and wettability on early stage mineralization and bone cell–materials interactions of polarized hydroxyapatite. Acta Biomat. 2009;5:2178-2188.

Ruan J-m and Helen GM. Biocompatibility evaluation in vitro. Part I: Morphology expression and proliferation of human and rat osteoblasts on the biomaterials. J. Cent. South Univ. Technol. 2001;8:1-8.

Yuan H, Kurashina K, de Bruijn JD, Li Y, De Groot K and Zhang X. A preliminary study on osteoinduction of two kinds of calcium phosphate ceramics. Biomat. 1999;20:1799-1806.

Thamaraiselvi T and Rajeswari S. Biological evaluation of bioceramic materials-a review. Carbon. 2004;24:172.

Mohseni E, Zalnezhad E and Bushroa AR. Comparative investigation on the adhesion of hydroxyapatite coating on Ti–6Al–4V implant: A review paper. Int J Adhes Adhes. 2014;48:238-257.

Mandracci P, Mussano F, Rivolo P and Carossa S. Surface treatments and functional coatings for biocompatibility improvement and bacterial adhesion reduction in dental implantology. Coat.. 2016;6:7.

Prosolov K, Popova K, Belyavskaya O, Rau J, Gross K, Ubelis A and Sharkeev YP. RF magnetron-sputtered coatings deposited from biphasic calcium phosphate targets for biomedical implant applications. Bioact. Mater. 2017;2:170-176.

Majeed A, He J, Jiao L, Zhong X and Sheng Z. Surface properties and biocompatibility of nanostructured TiO 2 film deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. Nanoscale Res. Lett 2015;10:1-9.

Kligman S, Ren Z, Chung C-H, Perillo MA, Chang Y-C, Koo H, Zheng Z and Li C. The impact of dental implant surface modifications on osseointegration and biofilm formation. J J. Clin. Med. 2021;10:1641.

Deng Y, Liu X, Xu A, Wang L, Luo Z, Zheng Y, Deng F, Wei J, Tang Z and Wei S. Effect of surface roughness on osteogenesis in vitro and osseointegration in vivo of carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone–nanohydroxyapatite composite. Int. J. Nanomedicine 2015;10:1425.

Rong M, Zhou L, Gou Z, Zhu A and Zhou D. The early osseointegration of the laser-treated and acid-etched dental implants surface: an experimental study in rabbits. J Mater Sci Mater Med 2009;20:1721-1728.

Eom T-G, Jeon G-R, Jeong C-M, Kim Y-K, Kim S-G, Cho I-H, Cho Y-S and Oh J-S. Experimental study of bone response to hydroxyapatite coating implants: bone-implant contact and removal torque test. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. 2012;114:411-418.

Kweh S, Khor K and Cheang P. The production and characterization of hydroxyapatite (HA) powders. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 1999;89:373-377.

Abdulmunem MM and Mohammed JA. Immediate Implant Placement in Fresh Extraction Socket. J. Baghdad Coll. Dent . 2016;28:103-110

Jani GH, Al-Ameer SS and Jawad SN. Histological and histomorphometric analysis of strontium chloride coated commercially pure titanium implant compared with hydroxyapatite coating. J. Baghdad Coll. Dent 2015;27:26-31.