Main Article Content
Background: Eucalyptus extracts and derivatives are natural substances with potent antimicrobial properties. This study investigated the in- vitro effects of non-nutritive sweeteners on the antifungal activity of alcoholic and aqueous Eucalyptus extracts against Candida albicans, a common oral pathogen. Materials and Method: Ten isolates of Candida albicans were isolated from dental students’ salivary samples. The alcoholic and aqueous extracts were prepared from fresh Eucalyptus leaves using maceration. The sensitivity of Candida albicans isolates to various concentrations of Eucalyptus extracts ranging from 50 to 250 (mg/mL) was evaluated via agar well diffusion method, while the agar streaking method was used to assess the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). In addition, the effect of non-nutritive sweeteners on the MFC of the extracts was investigated. Results: The Eucalyptus extract-sensitive Candida albicans isolates showed an increase in inhibitory zone width with increasing extract concentration. Regarding their antifungal effectiveness, clear disparities were observed among extract concentrations. Against Candida albicans, the MFC for Eucalyptus alcoholic extract was 75 mg/mL, but the MFC for Eucalyptus aqueous extract was 200 mg/mL. Notably, 15% stevia and 5% sucralose did not affect the antifungal effects of the Eucalyptus alcoholic extract. The antifungal effectiveness of the aqueous Eucalyptus extract against Candida albicans was unaffected by stevia and sucralose concentrations of up to 1%. Conclusion: Significant antimicrobial action against Candida albicans is shown in Eucalyptus extracts. Results indicated that stevia and sucralose at specific quantities could be utilized as sweeteners for Eucalyptus extracts in an efficient manner without impairing the extracts’ antifungal activity.
Received date: 20-06-2022
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Licenses and Copyright
The following policy applies in The Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry (JBCD):
# JBCD applies the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license to articles and other works we publish. If you submit your paper for publication by JBCD, you agree to have the CC BY license applied to your work. Under this Open Access license, you as the author agree that anyone can reuse your article in whole or part for any purpose, for free, even for commercial purposes. Anyone may copy, distribute, or reuse the content as long as the author and original source are properly cited. This facilitates freedom in re-use and also ensures that JBCD content can be mined without barriers for the needs of research.
# If your manuscript contains content such as photos, images, figures, tables, audio files, videos, etc., that you or your co-authors do not own, we will require you to provide us with proof that the owner of that content (a) has given you written permission to use it, and (b) has approved of the CC BY license being applied to their content. We provide a form you can use to ask for and obtain permission from the owner. If you do not have owner permission, we will ask you to remove that content and/or replace it with other content that you own or have such permission to use.Don't assume that you can use any content you find on the Internet, or that the content is fair game just because it isn't clear who the owner is or what license applies.
# Many authors assume that if they previously published a paper through another publisher, they own the rights to that content and they can freely use that content in their paper, but thatâ€™s not necessarily the case, it depends on the license that covers the other paper. Some publishers allow free and unrestricted re-use of article content they own, such as under the CC BY license. Other publishers use licenses that allow re-use only if the same license is applied by the person or publisher re-using the content. If the paper was published under a CC BY license or another license that allows free and unrestricted use, you may use the content in your JBCD paper provided that you give proper attribution, as explained above.If the content was published under a more restrictive license, you must ascertain what rights you have under that license. At a minimum, review the license to make sure you can use the content. Contact that JBCD if you have any questions about the license. If the license does not permit you to use the content in a paper that will be covered by an unrestricted license, you must obtain written permission from the publisher to use the content in your JBCD paper. Please do not include any content in your JBCD paper which you do not have rights to use, and always give proper attribution.
# If any relevant accompanying data is submitted to repositories with stated licensing policies, the policies should not be more restrictive than CC BY.
# JBCD reserves the right to remove any photos, captures, images, figures, tables, illustrations, audio and video files, and the like, from any paper, whether before or after publication, if we have reason to believe that the content was included in your paper without permission from the owner of the content.
Chandorkar, N., Tambe, S., Amin, P., Madankar, C. A systematic and comprehensive review on current understanding of the pharmacological actions, molecular mechanisms, and clinical implications of the genus eucalyptus. Phytomed Plus.2021:1(4): 100089.
Aleksic Sabo, V., Knezevic, P. Antimicrobial activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. plant extracts and essential oils: A review. Ind Crops Prod. 2019; 132: 413-429.
Khoshnazar, M., Parvardeh, S., Bigdeli, M. Alpha-pinene exerts neuroprotective effects via anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases.2020;29(8): 104977.
Juergens, L., Worth, H., Juergens, U. New Perspectives for Mucolytic, Anti-inflammatory and Adjunctive Therapy with 1,8-Cineole in COPD and Asthma: Review on the New Therapeutic Approach. Adv Ther. 2020;37(5): 1737-1753.
Nichol, A. D., Holle, M. J., An, R. Glycemic impact of non-nutritive sweeteners: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur J Clin Nutr.2018; 72(6): 796–804.
Gardana, C., Simonetti, P. Determination of steviol glycosides in commercial extracts of stevia rebaudiana and sweeteners by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography orbitrap mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2018; 1578: 8–14.
Ahmad, J., Khan, I., Blundell, R., Azzopardi, J., Mahomoodally, M. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.: an updated review of its health benefits, industrial applications and safety. Trends Food Sci Technol..2020;100,177-189.
Schiffman, S. S., Nagle, H. T. Revisited: Assessing the in vivo data on low/no-calorie sweeteners and the gut microbiota. Food Chem Toxicol. 2019;132: 110692.
Tennant, D., Vlachou, A. Potential consumer exposures to low/no calorie sweeteners: a refined assessment based upon market intelligence on use frequency, and consideration of niche applications. Food Addit Contam Part A. 2019;36(8): 1173-1183.
Erwig, L. P., Gow, N. A. Interactions of fungal pathogens with phagocytes. Nat Rev Microbiol. .2016;14(3): 163–176.
Pappas, P., Lionakis, M., Arendrup, M., Ostrosky-Zeichner, L., Kullberg, B. Invasive candidiasis. Nat Rev Dis Primers.2018; 4(1): 18026
Magill, S. S., O’Leary, E., Janelle, S. J., Thompson, D. L., Dumyati, G., Nadle, J., et al. Changes in prevalence of health care–associated infections in U.S. hospitals. N Engl J Med 2018; 379:1732-1744.
Gulati, M., Nobile, C. J. Candida albicans biofilms: Development, regulation, and molecular mechanisms. Microbes Infect. 2016;18(5): 310–321.
Lohse, M. B., Gulati, M., Johnson, A. D., Nobile, C. J. Development and regulation of single- and multi-species candida albicans biofilms. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2017;16(1):19–31.
Alim, D., Sircaik, S., Panwar, S. The Significance of Lipids to Biofilm Formation in Candida albicans: An Emerging Perspective. J. Fungi 2018, 4(4):140.
Gonzalez-Lara, M. F., Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.Invasive candidiasis. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2020; 41(01): 003-012.
Zawrotniak, M., Wojtalik, K., Rapala-Kozik, M. Farnesol, a quorum-sensing molecule of candida albicans triggers the release of neutrophil extracellular traps. Cells.2019; 8(12):1611.
Tenovuo J .Human saliva chlinical chimistry and microbiology. 2nd ed. Editors Thylstrup A and Fejerskov O. Pp. 2021;17-43, chapter 2. Munksgaard, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Richardson, P., Harborne, J. Phytochemical Methods. Brittonia.1985; 37(3): 309.
Wormser, G. P., Stratton, C. Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 9th edition edited by Patrick R. Murray, Ellen Jo Baron, James H. Jorgensen, Marie Louise Landry, and Michael A. Pfaller Washington, DC: ASM press, 2007 2488 pp., illustrated. $209.95 (hardcover). Clin Infect Dis..2008;46(1): 153–153.
AL-Mizraqchi, A. Adherence of mutans streptococci on the teeth surfaces: microbiological and biochemical studies Ph. D. thesis, university of Al-Mustansiryia, 1998.
Peres MA, Macpherson LM, Weyant RJ, Daly B, Venturelli R, Mathur MR, et al. Oral diseases: a global public health challenge. The Lancet. 2019;394(10194):249-60.
Naseri Salahshour, V., Abredari, H., Sajadi, M., Sabzaligol, M., Karimy, M. The Effect of Oral Health Promotion Program on Early Dental Decay in Students: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial. J Caring Sci. 2019;8(2): 105-110.
Janakiram, C., Venkitachalam, R., Fontelo, P., Iafolla, T., Dye, B. Effectiveness of herbal oral care products in reducing dental plaque & gingivitis – a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Complement Med Ther.2020;20(1): 43.
Tsui, C., Kong, E., Jabra-Rizk, M. Pathogenesis of Candida albicans biofilm. Pathog Dis. 2016;74(4):ftw018.
Moo, C., Osman, M., Yang, S., Yap, W., Ismail, S., Lim, S. et al. Antimicrobial activity and mode of action of 1,8-cineol against carbapenemase-producing.Klebsiella.pneumoniae. Sci Rep.2021;11(1): 20824
Puig, C. G., Reigosa, M. J., Valentão, P., Andrade, P. B., Pedrol, N. Unravelling the bioherbicide potential of eucalyptus globulus labill: Biochemistry and effects of its aqueous extract. PLOS ONE.2018;13(2).
Korir, M., Wachira, F., Wanyoko, J., Ngure, R., Khalid, R. The fortification of tea with sweeteners and milk and its effect on in vitro antioxidant potential of tea product and glutathione levels in an animal model. Food Chem. 2014;145:145-153.
Shalaby, E., Mahmoud, G., Shanab. Suggested mechanism for the effect of sweeteners on radical scavenging activity of phenolic compounds in black and green tea. Front Life Sci. 2016;9(4):241-251.
Dev, A., Rösler, A., Schlaad, H. Limonene as a renewable unsaturated hydrocarbon solvent for living anionic polymerization of β-myrcene. Poly Chem. 2021;12(21): 3084–3087.
Campos, J., Scherrmann, M., Berteina-Raboin, S. Eucalyptol: a new solvent for the synthesis of heterocycles containing oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen. Green Chem. 2019;21(6):1531-1539.
Galan, D., Ezeudu, N., Garcia, J., Geronimo, C., Berry, N., Malcolm, B. Eucalyptol (1,8-cineole): an underutilized ally in respiratory disorders? J. Essent. Oil Res. 2020;32(2), 103-110.
Abdul Kareem , M. W., Al Dhaher , Z. A. Evaluation of The Antifungal Activity of Nasturtium officinale (watercress) Oil with Calcium Hydroxide against Candida Albicans Isolated from Root Canal. J. Baghdad Coll. Dent. 2021;33(4), 1–5.
Aldhaher, Z. A. Antimicrobial activity of different types of mouthwashes against Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans (In vitro study). J. Baghdad Coll. Dent.. 2013;25(2), 185–191.